Answers of DPPH- 8 February
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1. Which of the following inscription tells us about the local village administration of the Cholas?
(a) Halmidi inscrption
(b) Mandasor inscrption
(c) Uttaramerur inscription
(d) Tosham inscription
Halmidi inscription is the oldest known Kannada language inscription in the Kannada script.
Tosham rock inscription documents the establishment of a monastery and building of water tanks for religious purposes in Haryana
Mandsour inscription is famous for Yashodarman’s victory over Hunas in 6th century. Inscription also talks about the silk workers constructing a Sun temple in Mandsour.
2. Local assembly of Brahmanas during the Cholas was called:
Ur was the local assembly of commoners during Cholas.
Nagarattar was assembly of merchants.
Nattar was assembly of nadu leaders.
Sabha was assembly of Brahmanas.
3. Consider the following statement regarding ‘Indian Feudalism’-
i. Feudalism led to increase in trade and urbanisation.
ii. Feudalism had element of increasing dependence of peasantry on the landed intermediaries.
iii. Land grants had led to decline in feudalism.
iv. There were many similar features of Indian and European feudalism.
Which of the above statements are correct:
(a) i and iii
(b) ii and iii
(c) i, ii and iv
(d) ii and iv
4. Guild in early medieval India was known as:
(a) Only i and ii
(b) Only i, ii and iv
(c) Only iii
(d) All are correct
Guilds were named by all of the above.
5. Consider the following statements:
i. Nanadesi was merchant operating domestically in medieval India.
ii. Manigraman was the merchant guild of South India in medieval times.
iii. Cowries were used as a medium of exchange in medieval India.
iv. Hundika was a bill of exchange used by merchants for commercial transactions.
Which of the above statements are correct?
(a) i, ii and iv
(b) ii, iii and iv
(c) ii and iv
(d) All are correct
Nanadesi was merchant operating internationally in medieval India
6. Temples in medieval times acted as:
i. centres of education
ii. nuclear of urbanisation
iii. centres of agricultural development
iv. store houses of wealth
Which of the above statements are incorrect?
(a) iii and iv
(b) i, ii and iii
(c) ii and iii
7. Which of the following is incorrect during medieval India?
(a) In the field of leather industry, Gujarat occupied an enviable position.
(b) Udghataghati and Ghatiyantra was a device of irrigation.
(c) Brahmdeya was Brahmin’s assembly.
(d) Mahattaras and Pattakilas were village headmen.
Brahmdeya was tax free land gift given to Brahmin.
8. Indian mathematician Bhaskara II wrote a treatise on mathematics in 12th century called:
9. Match the following:
List I List II
A. Vishti i. Silver Coinage
B. Harikela ii. Taxes
C. Agrahara iii. Forced Labour
D. Bhoga iv. Tax free Brahmin village
Correct match is:
A B C D
(a) iii i iv ii
(b) ii iv iii i
(c) iv iii ii iii
(d) i ii iii iv
10. Araghatta was:
(a) a cane crusher
(b) an irrigation tool
(c) a tool for manufacturing swords
(d) an elected committee
1. Do you think that the Chola village assemblies were democratic in nature? Give explanations for your answer.
The system of village autonomy with assemblies (Sabhas and Urs) and their committees (Variyams) developed through the ages and reached its culmination during the Chola rule. The Uttaramerur inscriptions provide details of the formation and functions of village councils. It is said that during Chola period, there was democratic government at the village level as the Uttaramerur inscriptions give an idea of how a village assembly of Uttaramerur consisted of elected members. Several works like maintenance of temples, agriculture, irrigation, collection of taxes, road construction etc was looked after by the local assembly. The Chola Emperors respected the decisions of these assemblies.
But Chola village assemblies had only some political practices as democratic. The Chola polity was absolute monarchy. The central government through its officers exercised general supervision and had right to intervene in the matter of village under emergency situations. The village assemblies had to take into account the policies of central government.
There were close links between some of the Brahmana Sabhas and Chola court. Uttaramerur inscriptions state that the resolution of the Sabha was made in the presence of an official especially deputed by the King. Tanjavur inscriptions indicate that Raja Raja I issued orders to the Sabha of Cholamandalam to perform various types of services in the Brihadeshwara temple.
Other factors which indicate lack of proper democracy were:
- Candidates were elected through lot system instead of voting system.
- The members of the Ur (village assembly of non-Brahmins) consisted of the taxpaying land owners of the village. Whereas in case of Sabha (village assembly of Brahmans), membership was governed by criterion such as property ownership, family antecedents, learning and good conduct.
- There were many people, who were debarred from contesting election, for ex: relatives of criminals, those who had been on any committee for past three years.
- In actual functioning of the assemblies, no reference is found regarding quorum or decision by voting.
- Water supplies determined to a large extent that which villages would have their assemblies and which would not. Those villages which were in the central region of Kaveri river basin were under direct Royal control, while those regions which were far away and located in drier region were autonomous and contained the self governing institution.
Therefore, the village assemblies cannot be called democratic in modern sense as the grass roots democracy was not absolute.
(NOTE: Skip few points to fit within the word limits)
2. Write a short notes on: “Applicability of the term ‘Indian Feudalism’ to early Medieval Society.”