History Optional Paper- 1 Solution- 2000: Q.5 (b)
Q.5 (b) Write a short essay on: “Amir Khusrau was an eminent poet not a historian.”
Amir Khusrau was a poet and genius as a writer. He adorned the courts of all the sultans from Balban to Ghiasuddin Tughluq as the poet laureate. He was popularly known as Tuti e Hind-‘the parrot of India’.
Amir Khusro’s compositions:
- He is said to have composed four lakhs of couplets in persian and Hindavi or Delhvi (later urdu) language and wrote several works on literature which included Qiran us Sa’adain, Miftahul Futuh, Khanzainul Futuh, Tughluq Nama and five divans, novels, four collections of Shaikh Nizamuddin’s sufi philosophy and sayings, besides numerous treatises on theology, philosophy, art, literary criticism and various cultural themes.
- In Qiran us Sa’adain, he as an eye witness gives account of the meeting that took place between Sultan Kaiqubad and his father Bughra Khan. It throws a flood of light on the political condition and socio-cultural life of the period.
- Miftahul Futuh contains an account of the military campaigns of Jalaluddin Khaji in poetry.
- Khazainul Futuh or Tarikh-i-Iilahi describes conquests of Alauddin Khalji and mongol invasions and counter stategy adopted by him.
- Nuh Sipihr deals with the reign of Mubarak Shah Khalji.
- Tughluq Nama composed to commemorate the victory of Ghiasuddin tughluq over Khusarau Khan, leading to the establishment of new ruling dynasty.
Amir Khusro was an eminent poet not a historian:
On first sight it seems that these works are of much historical value. But these works were prepared by him either under the direction of the reigning monarchs or for presentation to them. His primary concern was to demonstrate his literary ability. The writer applauds the achievements of his patrons in hyperbolic terms and glosses over their shortcomings and failures.
The works suffer generally from factual errors and show lack of chronological sequences. The author gives fanciful accounts of some very insignificant happenings and at the same time he misses some of the important socio-politico events and economic condition of the time.
Amir Khusarau cannot be called a deliberate lier albeit he omitted what he did not want to express, he does not distort the facts. Thus, the basic requirements to be Historian such as objectivity, unbiaseness, giving account of the events which are full of historical values are lacked by Amir Khusarau’s account. Whereas As a poet his works are full with verbose style, poetic imageries and literary art forms. He was the first Muslim poet who made liberal use of Hindi words and adopted Indian poetic imagery and themes.