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Map Based Questions with Solution of 2018 Main Examination

Map Based Questions with Solution of 2018 Main Examination

Q.1 Identify the following places marked on the map supplied to you and write a short note of about 30 words on each of them in your Question-cum-Answer Booklet. Locational hints for each of the places marked on the map are given below seriatim.

India map 2018

(i) Megalithic burial site

(ii) Chalcolithic site

(iii) Cave paintings

(iv) Paleolithic site

(v) Political and Cultural centre

(vi) Terracotta centre

(vii) Harappan site

(viii) Vaishnava cultural site

(ix) Painted Grey Ware site

(x) Chalcolithic site

(xi) Early agricultural centre

(xii) Early Harappan site

(xiii) An ancient temple

(xiv) Political and Cultural centre

(xv) An ancient sea port

(xvi) Buddhist centre

(xvii) Inscriptional site

(xviii) An ancient capital

(xix) A Jaina centre

(xx) An ancient capital

SOLUTION

(i) Megalithic burial site

Adichanallur

  • In Tuticorin District, Tamil Nadu.
  • Urn burial site. Earthenware urns.
  • Bronze objects, iron objects, potsherds.
  • Skeletal remains inside the urns are in crouched position.
  • Two examples of double burial.
  • Pottery:
    • BRW, red ware and black ware.
    • Graffiti on pottery.
  • Iron implements:- arrowheads, spearheads and axe.
  • Copper ornaments found.
  • Rice husk and cloth impression on Iron sword.
  • A potter’s kiln (industrial activity) found in habitational site.

(ii) Chalcolithic site

Gilund (or may be Ahar)

Gilund

  • In Rajsamand district, Rajasthan.
  • Chalcolithic and late Harappan site.
  • Largest site of Ahar-Banas complex.

Ahar

  • On the banks of Ahar River of southeastern Rajasthan.
  • Chalcolithic and Late Harappan site.
  • Pottery:
    • BRW with linear and dotted designs.
    • Shapes:- bowls, bowls-on-stands, vases.
  • Habitation:
    • Single, double and multi-roomed rectangular, square or circular houses.
    • Houses made of stones, mud bricks, the walls being plastered with mud.
  • Subsistence pattern:
    • Cultivation- wheat and barley etc.
    • animal rearing and
    • hunting.
  • Trade links with the Harappans.

(iii) Cave paintings

Ajanta

  • In Aurangabad district, Maharashtra.
  • Buddhist Caves (2nd century BC to 7th century AD).
  • UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • The 7th century Chinese Pilgrim, Huen Tsang mentioned it.
  • Built in two phases-
    • Satavahana- Hinayana
    • Vakațaka- Mahayana
  • Elaborate caves.
  • Architecture:
    • Chaityas and viharas.
    • Early viharas – simpler, and lack shrines.
    • Later Viharas also had shrine at the rear centres, statue of Buddha.
    • This change reflects the movement from Hinayana to Mahayana Buddhism.
  • Paintings:
    • Mural paintings.
    • Buddhist themes like Jataka stories.
    • Paintings use many colors.

(iv) Paleolithic site

Attirampakkam

  • In Chennai district, Tamilnadu.
  • It reveals a sequence of lower, middle, and upper Paleolithic cultures.
  • One of the oldest prehistoric site in South Asia.
  • It is an open-air paleolithic site.
  • Artefacts:
    • Mostly handaxes, made of quartzite stones that were not available locally brought from outside.
    • These tools were also used for butchery and chopping wood.
    • The uniformity in the shape and symmetry of these tools showed capacity for organised and collective working.
  • Other discoveries:
    • A set of animal foot-prints found.
    • Animal fossil teeth of horse, water buffalo, and nilgai, suggesting an open and wet landscape in early Paleolithic times.

(v) Political and Cultural centre

Hampi

  • Located within the ruins of the city of Vijayanagara, the capital of the Vijayanagara Empire.
  • Foreign travelers who visited this city during the period of its glory have left a very glowing account of the city.
  • Group of Monuments at Hampi is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • Religious, Civil & Military buildings. Most of monuments:
    • Religious buildings:
        • Hindu temples:
            • Hazara Rama Temple Complex:
              • Built by Krishnadev Raya.
              • Elaborate frescoes.
              • Carvings and inscriptions depicting the story of Ramayana.
            • Vittala Temple Complex:
              • Images of foreigners like Persians selling horses.
            • Virupaksha Temple:
              • Predates the founding of the Vijayanagara Empire.
              • Mainly Shiva temple.

          Important civil architecture:Elephant Stable used to house the eleven royal elephants in King Krishnadeva Raya’s army.The neighbouring building housed the elephant riders of the king.

          Important civil architecture:Elephant Stable used to house the eleven royal elephants in King Krishnadeva Raya’s army.The neighbouring building housed the elephant riders of the king.

      Important civil architecture:Elephant Stable used to house the eleven royal elephants in King Krishnadeva Raya’s army.The neighbouring building housed the elephant riders of the king.

      • Important civil architecture:
          • Elephant Stable used to house the eleven royal elephants in King Krishnadeva Raya’s army.The neighbouring building housed the elephant riders of the king.

        Important civil architecture:Elephant Stable used to house the eleven royal elephants in King Krishnadeva Raya’s army.The neighbouring building housed the elephant riders of the king.

    Important civil architecture:Elephant Stable used to house the eleven royal elephants in King Krishnadeva Raya’s army.The neighbouring building housed the elephant riders of the king.

Important civil architecture:

    Elephant Stable used to house the eleven royal elephants in King Krishnadeva Raya’s army.The neighbouring building housed the elephant riders of the king.
  • Important civil architecture:Elephant Stable used to house the eleven royal elephants in King Krishnadeva Raya’s army.The neighbouring building housed the elephant riders of the king.

(vi) Terracotta centre

Chandraketugarh

  • In North 24 parganas district, West Bengal.
  • Archaeological site:
    • NBPW found,
    • Silver and copper punch marked coins,
      • Some of the punch marked coins having ship motif indicate that Chandraketugarh might have been a port-town.

      Stone and terracotta beads.Semi-precious stone beads and items of ivory and bone found.Terracotta art:

      • Unusual degree of precision and craftsmanship.
      • Terracotta plaques are comparable to those found at other sites such as Kaushambi and Ahichhatra.
      • Terracotta plaques from these sites often carry similar motifs executed in nearly identical fashion.
    • A temple structure of Gupta or post-Gupta period found.
  • Stone and terracotta beads.Semi-precious stone beads and items of ivory and bone found.Terracotta art:
    • Unusual degree of precision and craftsmanship.
    • Terracotta plaques are comparable to those found at other sites such as Kaushambi and Ahichhatra.
    • Terracotta plaques from these sites often carry similar motifs executed in nearly identical fashion.
  • A temple structure of Gupta or post-Gupta period found.

(vii) Harappan site

Kuntasi (other possibility Surkotda)

  • In Morbi district, Gujarat.
  • Mature and late harappan site.
  • It had a jetty and a manufacturing centre.
  • Houses built on stone foundations with walls of mud bricks in Harappan proportion but unusually large.
  • No citadel found.
  • Pottery with drawings.
  • Two cylindrical stone anchors found which suggests seaborne activity.
  • Lapis Lazuli found in large quantity which was probably exported to Mesopotamia.

Surkotada

  • In Kutch district, Gujarat.
  • On the land route to Lothal.
  • Mud brick and stone rubble used.
  • Antiquities:
    • Terracotta seal with Harappan pictographic script but without animal,
    • beads of steatite and carnelian.
  • Horse like skeleton found.
  • Elephant bone also found.
  • Coastal trade during Harappan time.

(viii) Vaishnava cultural site

Udaigiri Caves or Besnagar

  • Near Vidisha, Madhya Pradesh.
  • Rock-cut caves (one is dedicated to Jainism and 23 to Hinduism)
  • Iconography of Vaishnavism, Shaktism and Shaivism.
    • Relief sculpture of Vishnu in incarnation of man-boar Varaha.
  • Inscriptions of the Gupta dynasty belonging to the reigns of Chandragupta II and Kumaragupta I.
  • Jaina and Hindu Cave features inscriptions (One of the oldest Jaina inscription from 425 CE)
  • The Heliodoros Garuda Pillar of Vashudeva is near Udaygiri, Besnagar.
    • Heliodorus pillar/ Besnagar pillar/ Garuda pillar:
      • Monolithic free standing stone column
      • Erected around 113 BCE by Heliodorus, a Greek ambassador of the Indo-Greek king to the court of the Shunga king.
      • Surmounted by a sculpture of Garuda.
      • Inscription states that it was raised in honour of god Vasudeva by Heliodorous.

(ix) Painted Grey Ware site

  • Not Sure (will update once clarified)

(x) Chalcolithic site

Inamgaon

    • In Pune district, Maharashtra.
    • Post-Harappan Chalcolithic site.
    • Multiple cultural phases:- Jorwe culture and Malwa Culture found.
    • Habitation:
        • Early chalcolithic:
          • Mud and circular houses.
          • Storage pits.
          • Biggest houses with five room was of the ruling chief.
          • Granary.

          Later Chalcolithic:

          • Fortified wall around the settled area.

          Pottery:

      Red with black designs.

      • Later Chalcolithic:
        • Fortified wall around the settled area.

        Pottery:

Red with black designs.

    • Pottery:

Red with black designs.

Artefacts:

  • Stone tools for cutting plants, meat etc.
  • Few coppers tools and ornaments found.
    • Ornaments:- beads, bangles, and anklets. Later gold also.
    • Tools and weapons such as drills, fish hooks and arrowheads.

    Beads of terracotta, semi-precious stones ivory, sea shells.Terracotta figurines:- toys, bull, female goddess etc.

Pottery:

  • Red with black designs.

Artefacts:

  • Stone tools for cutting plants, meat etc.
  • Few coppers tools and ornaments found.
    • Ornaments:- beads, bangles, and anklets. Later gold also.
    • Tools and weapons such as drills, fish hooks and arrowheads.

    Beads of terracotta, semi-precious stones ivory, sea shells.Terracotta figurines:- toys, bull, female goddess etc.

Trade with other parts of the country.Agriculture:

  • Wheat, barley, lentils, peas, gram and beans.

Bones of wild and domesticates.

(xi) Early agricultural centre

Koldihawa

  • In Allahabad district, UP.
  • From the Neolithic, Chalcolithic to the iron age.
  • Rice:
    • Remains of rice and impression of rice husk embedded in pieces of burnt clay found.
  • Other discoveries included stone blades, polished stone celts, microliths, querns and mullers (for grinding) and
  • Bone tools also found.
  • Pottery:
    • Hand made,
    • cord marked pottery,
    • BRW.
  • Chalcolithic period:
    • Pottery:
      • Introduction of wheel-made pottery,
      • BRW.

      Mud floors with burnt clay and post holes, remnants of wattle-and-daub houses.The tool kit includes copper, bone and stone tools.Microlithic tools used.Copper beads and bone tools.Beads of semi-precious stones, ring stones and terracotta found.

  • Mud floors with burnt clay and post holes, remnants of wattle-and-daub houses.The tool kit includes copper, bone and stone tools.Microlithic tools used.Copper beads and bone tools.Beads of semi-precious stones, ring stones and terracotta found.

(xii) Early Harappan site

Kot Diji

  • In Sind, Amri, on bank of Indus.
  • Early and mature Harappan level.
  • Settlement:
    • Fortified with a massive wall made of limestone rubble and mud-brick
    • a citadel complex and a lower residential area
    • House walls of stone and mud-brick.
  • Artefacts:
    • Objects of stone, shell, and bone;
    • terracotta figurines (including a bull figurine),
    • bangles, and beads;
  • Pottery:
    • Wheel-made and decorated.
    • a short-necked ovoid pot, painted with designs such as the ‘horned deity’, pipal leaves and ‘fish scales’.
  • At Kot Diji and Gumla, a burnt deposit between early Harappan and mature Harappan levels suggests a major fire.

(xiii) An ancient temple

Martand Sun Temple

  • Near Anantnag, J&K.
  • Dedicated to Surya and built during the 8th century CE. Now in ruins.
  • Built by Lalitaditya of the karkota dynasty.
  • Stands in the middle of a large courtyard enclosed by a cellular peristyle, having fluted columns.
  • The temple proper contains grabhagriha, anatrala and closed mandapa, approached by a grand flight of steps.
  • Exteriorly, the sanctum is three ratha in plan.
  • It is entered on the west with a double chambered gateway that shares the width of the main temple.

(xiv) Political and Cultural centre

Hastinapur

  • In Meerut district, UP.
  • Capital of Kuru.
  • Jaina tradition:
    • Place where Rishabha, the first tirthankara, lived.
    • Mahavira visited.
  • OCP followed by PGW.
  • Habitation:
    • Wattle-and-daub and mud huts.
    • Unbaked bricks.
  • Chert and jasper weights found.
  • Horse bones found.
  • 2nd century BCE–3rd century CE: (Urbanisation)
    • Pottery:
      • Wheel-turned red ware.
      • Designs such as fish, leaves, flowers, svastikas, triratnas, loops, circles, and other geometric patterns.

      Habitation:

      • Planed settlement.
      • Burnt brick, ring well found.

      Artefacts:

      • Objects: iron, copper, ivory, terracotta figurines.
      • rings and beads
      • potsherds and seal
      • Coins– Yaudheyas and Kushana

      Terracotta:

      • Humped bull
      • torso of the bodhisattva Maitreya.
    • Habitation:
      • Planed settlement.
      • Burnt brick, ring well found.

      Artefacts:

      • Objects: iron, copper, ivory, terracotta figurines.
      • rings and beads
      • potsherds and seal
      • Coins– Yaudheyas and Kushana

      Terracotta:

      • Humped bull
      • torso of the bodhisattva Maitreya.

(xv) An ancient sea port

Muziris

  • In Cranganore, Kerala.
  • Ancient port in the Chera kingdom in Sangam Age.
  • Trade with Arabia, Rome, Greece etc.
  • Sangam literature, Greek & Roman writers like Pliny, Periplus mention Muziris.
  • Export:
    • Spices, semi-precious stones, pearls, diamonds, sapphires, ivory, tortoise shells etc.
  • Import:
    • Romans gold coins, figured linens, copper, tin, lead, coral, raw glass, wine etc.
  • Muziris Heritage Project started by Kerala government.

(xvi) Buddhist centre

Sannati

  • In Gulbarga District of Northern Karnataka
  • Discovery of the first inscribed portrait of Ashoka, named Raya Ashoka, was discovered in the stupa.
  • Buddhist Stupa discovered
  • Major Ashokan Rock Edict
    • Prakrit language and Brahmi script
    • Separate Rock Edicts 1 and 2, fragments Rock Edicts 13 and 14.
  • Famous for the Chandrala Parameshwari Temple.

(xvii) Inscriptional site

Shahbazgarhi (though given location is bit dislocated)

  • In Mardan district, Pakistan.
  • Major Rock Edicts of Ashoka:
    • Fourteen major edicts
    • located beside one of the ancient trade routes
    • present aspects of Asoka’s dharma
    • carved on two rocks on a hill
    • in Kharoshthi script
    • written from right to left
    • Kharosti suggests influence of Achaemenid.

(xviii) An ancient capital

Sirpur

    • In Mahasamund district, Chattisgarh.
    • Hindu, Buddhist (Vaishnavism, Shaivism) and Jain monuments.
    • It was considered as the ancient capital of South Koshal and was called at Shreepur.

    • Hindu monuments:
        • Shiva, Vaishnava
        • Lakshmana temple:
          • Brick temple.
          • Most well preserved.
          • Built by Vasata in 7th century AD.
          • Dedicated to Lord Vishnu,
          • The plan of the temple consists of a garbagriha, antarala and a mandapa.

          Other Hindu monuments include Rama temple, Gandheshwar temple etc.

      Buddhist monuments:

        • Viharas,
        • Buddha, Pdmapani, Avlokiteshwara statues etc.
        • Some syncretic finds of Hindi and Buddhist.

      Jain monuments:

      • Ruins of Jain basadi and monastery found.
      • Bronze image of Adinatha (first Tirthankara).
      • Other Hindu monuments include Rama temple, Gandheshwar temple etc.

Buddhist monuments:

      • Viharas,
      • Buddha, Pdmapani, Avlokiteshwara statues etc.
      • Some syncretic finds of Hindi and Buddhist.

Jain monuments:

    • Ruins of Jain basadi and monastery found.
    • Bronze image of Adinatha (first Tirthankara).

Buddhist monuments:

    • Viharas,
    • Buddha, Pdmapani, Avlokiteshwara statues etc.
    • Some syncretic finds of Hindi and Buddhist.

Jain monuments:

  • Ruins of Jain basadi and monastery found.
  • Bronze image of Adinatha (first Tirthankara).

(xix) A Jaina centre

Udayagiri- Khandagiri Caves (though given location is bit dislocated)

  • Twin hills Udayagiri and Khandagiri near Bhubaneswar, Odisha.
  • 33 rock cut caves on both the hills.
  • Mostly single storied but some double storied.
  • Dwelling retreats of the Jaina monks.
  • Caves were excavated by king Kharavela and his successors.
  • Ranigumpha caves- double storied and the largest.
  • Hathigumpha inscription (17 line) of king Kharavela (2nd century BCE)-
    • In Prakrit incised in a Brahmi script.
    • Talks about:
      • military conquests of Kharvela,
      • his orientation towards Janism,
      • his construction works,
      • his liberal religious spirit,
      • his favors to art like music and dance etc.
      • his retrieving an image of a jina.
    • This is the earliest epigraphic reference to image worship in Jainism.

(xx) An ancient capital

Vaishali

  • In Bihar.
  • Capital city of the Licchavi, considered one of the first example of a republic, in the Vrijji Confederacy Mahajanapada.
  • Important place for Jain and Buddhist religions.
  • Here in 599 BCE the 24th Jain Tirthankara, Mahavira was born and brought up in Kundagrama in Vaisali republic.
  • During Bimbisara, Gautama Buddha preached his last sermon before his death in 483 BCE.
  • In 383 BCE the Second Buddhist council was convened here by King Kalasoka.
  • An Ashokan Pillar is found here which is topped by a single lion.
  • Mentioned by Faxian (4th century CE) and Xuanzang (7th century CE).
  • Also renowned as the land of Amrapali, the great Indian courtesan, who appears in many folktales, as well as in Buddhist literature who was said to become a disciple of Buddha.

Note:

  • Except Kuntasi, all other sites were covered in our map material
  • Any suggestion is welcome.

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