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Map based questions with solution- 2020 History Optional Mains Examination

Q.1 Identify the following places marked on the map supplied to you and write a short note of about 30 words on each of them in your Question-cum-Answer Booklet. Locational hints for each of the places marked on the map are given below seriatim. [50 Marks]

(i) Paleolithic site

(ii) Paleolithic Factory site

(iii) Neolithic site

(iv) Early and Mature Harappan site

(v) Chalcolithic site

(vi) Site of Coin and Seal Moulds

(vii) Ancient Administration Centre

(viii) Ancient Political Headquarter

(ix) Ancient Temple site

(x) Pre and Proto Historic site

(xi) Ancient Capital City

(xii) Place of Shaiva Temple

(xiii) World Heritage Centre of Temple complex

(xiv) An Inscriptional site

(xv) Place of Jain Temple

(xvi) Largest Buddhist Monastery

(xvii) Ancient Temple Complex

(xviii) Place of oldest Mosque

(xix) Temple Complex dedicated to Shiva

(xx) Ancient Education Centre

Solution

(i) Paleolithic site

Paisra

  • In Munger in Bihar.
  • Paleolithic and Mesolithic site.
  • A stone working site containing finished and semi-finished tools found.
  • The evidence for the construction of huts and temporary shelters found.
  • Apart from microliths, there are traces of numerous fire places found.
  • The raw material for making tools, i.e. stone, was probably heated before flaking.
  • The thin layer of Mesolithic habitation suggests that people did not live at this place for a long time.
  • No organic remains have been reported.

(ii) Paleolithic Factory site

Hunsgi

  • In Yadgir district, Karnataka.
  • Palaeolithic tools found.
  • It contained stone tools and weapons made from chelimestone, sandstone, quartzite, dolerite, and chert.
  • Tools found included blades with sharp edges and many multipurpose instruments.
  • Habitation-cum factory sites:
    • Stone working site where tools of local raw material were made and sent to other places.
    • Few traces of habitation structures of early hominids.
    • Evidence of thatched roof-like structures.
    • Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers lived in a ‘band society’.

(iii) Neolithic site

Koldihawa

  • In Allahabad district, UP.
  • From the Neolithic, Chalcolithic to the iron age.
  • Rice:
    • Remains of rice and impression of rice husk embedded in pieces of burnt clay found.
  • Other discoveries included stone blades, polished stone celts, microliths, querns and mullers (for grinding) and
  • Bone tools also found.
  • Pottery:
    • Hand made, 
    • cord marked pottery,
    • BRW.
  • Chalcolithic period:
    • Pottery:
      • Introduction of wheel-made pottery,
      • BRW.
    • Mud floors with burnt clay and post holes, remnants of wattle-and-daub houses.
    • The tool kit includes copper, bone and stone tools.
    • Microlithic tools used.
    • Copper beads and bone tools.
    • Beads of semi-precious stones, ring stones and terracotta found.

(iv) Early and Mature Harappan site

Padri (or may be Rangpur)

Padri:

  • Kerala-no-dhoro, also known as Padri, is an archaeological site in Gujarat, on the southern coast of Saurashtra region.
  • Structures belonging to Early Harappan and Mature Harappan period were found in this site.
  • Copper fish hooks, of exceptionally big size are found here.
  • Well made, sturdy storage jars were also found at this site, which were used for transporting salt.
  • A jar found at this place is decorated with buffalo horn motif and with a large figure in a ragged skirt and wearing a pair of buffalo horns.
  • In early Harappan levels of this site, symbols similar to Harappan writing were found.
  • Rectangular houses, houses with rooms and workshops were constructed in Early Harappan Period.
  • Houses constructed during Mature Harappan period were of mud bricks with floors being plastered with lime and dung; and these houses had storage spaces and hearths for cooking.

(v) Chalcolithic site

Navdatoli

  • In west Nimar district, MP.
  • Chalcolithic and Late Harappan Site.
  • Navdatoli is the largest settlement of Malwa culture.
  • Habitation:
    • Circular or rectangular shape.
    • Circular wattle-and-daub houses, post holes
    • Floors plastered with lime.
    • Ancient village inhabited through four stages.
  • Chulhas and storage jars found in houses.
  • Pottery:
    • BRW, grey ware with painted
  • Domestication of animals.
  • Microliths found.

(vi) Site of Coin and Seal Moulds

Sunet, Ludhiana

  • Sunet a village in tahsil Ludhiana West of district Ludhiana in Punjab in Sutlej valley.
    • Saunetra, modern Sunet is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi.
  • A large number of seals and thousands of coin moulds of the Yaudheyas, coins of Hermaeus, Gondopharnes of Chandragupta and Samudragupta,
    • Coins, pearls and seals dating as old as first century AD.
    • There used to a taksal (mint) at this place and which explains the abundance of coins found here.
  • Other finds:
    • A number of ancient earthen mounds found.
    • Barrell shaped bead
    • Piece of Terracotta
    • Toy Cart Wheel
  • The digging revealed that Sunet was inhabited and had signs of Harappan civilisation.

(vii) Ancient Administration Centre

Panam Nagar

(viii) Ancient Political Headquarter

Karur or Uraiyur

Kuravur/Karur 

  • In Tiruchirapalli district, Tamilnadu.
  • Inland capital of early Chera dynasty during Sangam age.
  • A political centre as well as centre of crafts and trade.
  • Pottery:
    • BRW,
    • Roman amphorae,
    • locally made rouletted ware.
  • Coins:
    • Roman copper coin
    • Copper coins with Chera symbols such as the bow and arrow and silver portrait coins, indicate that a Chera mint may have been located here.
  • Literary sources refer to jewel making as an craft.
    • Confirmed by the discovery of finger rings with various motifs carved on them.

Uraiyur

  • In Tiruchirapalli, Tamilnadu.
  • Capital of the early Cholas.
  • Sangam poems:
    • Describe it as a great fortified city.
    • mention burial grounds full of stones on its outskirts probably megaliths.
  • Fine textiles of Uraiyur mentioned in Tamil and Graeco-Roman texts.
  • Pottery:
    • BRW,
    • russet-coated painted ware,
    • rouletted ware,
    • arretine ware,
    • red-slipped ware.
    • Graffiti and inscriptions in Brahmi.
  •  A rectangular cistern found.

(ix) Ancient Temple site

Martand:

  • Near Anantnag, J&K.
  • Dedicated to Surya and built during the 8th century CE. Now in ruins.
  • Built by Lalitaditya of the karkota dynasty.
  • Stands in the middle of a large courtyard enclosed by a cellular peristyle, having fluted columns.
  • The temple proper contains grabhagriha, anatrala and closed mandapa, approached by a grand flight of steps.
  • Exteriorly, the sanctum is three ratha in plan.
  • It is entered on the west with a double chambered gateway that shares the width of the main temple.

(x) Pre and Proto Historic site

Ganeshwar:

  • In the north-eastern part of Rajasthan.
  • Jodhpura: PGW and Chalcolithic.
  • Pottery:
    • Handmade, Wheel-made, red in colour, with incised designs.
    • Shapes:-dish-on-stand.
  • Three cultural phases:
    • Period I:
      • Hunting-gathering
      • microliths
    • Period II:
      • Beginning of metallurgy (copper).
      • Circular huts
      • Microliths
      • animal bones. 
    • Period III:
      • Many copper objects found:- evidence of copper working centre.
      • Lesser number of microliths and animal bones.
  • Contact with Harappan sites: – similar potteries, copper objects found.

(xi) Ancient Capital City

Sisupalgarh:

  • In Khurda disctrict, Odisha.
  • A ruined fortification.
  • One of the largest and preserved early historic fortifications in India.
  • Probably represents Tosali mentioned in the edicts of Ashoka at Dhauli.
  • Also identified by some scholars with Kalinganagara noted as the capital of the king Kharvela in Hathigumpha inscription at Udayagiri cave.
  • Antiquities which give urban touch include
    • plenty of iron objects,
    • bangles of glass and ivory,
    • semi-precious stones,
    • coin-mould.
  • Rouletted ware associated with the Romans and the lockets imitating the Roman coins suggests trade contacts with the foreign countries.

(xii) Place of Shaiva Temple

Kaleshwaram Mukteshwara Swamy Temple

(xiii) World Heritage Centre of Temple complex

Pattadakal:

  • Located on the west bank of the Malaprabha River in Bagalakote district.
  • The Group of monuments in Pattadakal designated as UNESCO World Heritage.
    • They cover a remarkable series of nine Hindu temples, as well as a Jain sanctuary in northern Karnataka.
    • Eight temples dedicated to Shiva, a ninth shaivite sanctuary called the Papanatha Temple, and a Jain Narayana temple.
  • In this group of temples, the Virupaksha Temple, built c. 740 by Queen Lokamahadevi to commemorate her husband’s (King Vikramaditya II) victory over the Pallava kings from the south, is considered the most outstanding architectural edifice.
  • These are a remarkable combination of temples built by the Chalukya Dynasty in the 6th to the 8th century at Aihole, Badami and Pattadakal.
  • The temples represent a remarkable fusion of the architectural features of Nagara and Dravida style.
  • The friezes in the Hindu temples display various Vedic and Puranic concepts, depict stories from the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Bhagavata Purana, as well as elements of other Hindu texts, such as the Panchatantra and the Kiratarjuniya.

(xiv) An Inscriptional site

Bicholim

  • In North Goa district of Goa.
  • ancient inscriptions on a slab of stone

(xv) Place of Jain Temple

Ellora or Paithan

Ellora:

  • In Aurangabad district, Maharashtra.
  • Rock-cut cave (6th century AD  onward).
  • Buddhist, Hindu and Jain rock-cut temples and Viharas,
  • Built during Kalachuri, Chalukya and Rashtrakuta.
  • The Jagannatha Sabha– Jain Digambara cave temples (built by Rashtrakuta).
  • Viharas
  • One chaitya griha of the Buddhist caves.
  • Hindu Architecture:
    • Kailasanatha temple
      • Built by Rashtrakuta king Krishna III in 8th century.
      • Dravidian architecture.
      • Looks like Mount Kailash
      • free standing,
      • multi-storeyed temple,
      • carved out of one single rock.
    • Dashavatara Cave- monolithic mandapa.
    • Sculptural panels including the ten avatars of Vishnu.
  • Inscription:
    • Of grant of Dantidurga of Rashtrakuta.
    • Inscriptions on the Kailash temple.
    • Jain cave Jagannatha Sabha has inscriptions that give the names of monks and donors.
  • Cave paintings are also seen at Ellora.

Paithan

  • In Aurangabad district, Maharashtra.
  • Capital of the Satavahanas (2nd century BC to 2nd century AD).
  • Mentioned in 1st century AD Greek book, Periplus of Erythrian Sea and in Ashokan Rock Edict.
  • Emporium of trade.
  • Home of saint Eknath.
  • Famous today for Paithani silk saris.
  • Paithan is a well known ancient Digambar Jain atishay kshetra, meaning a Pilgrimage place of miracles.
    • This temple is dedicated to Munisuvrata, the 20th Jain tirthanakar.

(xvi) Largest Buddhist Monastery

Tawang Monastery

  • It is located in Tawang city of Tawang district in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • is the largest monastery in India and second largest in the world after the Potala Palace in Lhasa, Tibet.
  • It is situated in the valley of the Tawang Chu,
  • The Monastery is known as the Tawang Ganden Namgyal Lhatse i.e., the celestial paradise of divine site chosen by the horse was founded by Merag Lodroe Gyamtso in the year 1680-81.
    • The Dalai Lama gave him a painting of goddess Palden Lhamo to be kept in the monastery.
  • It belongs to the Gelug school of Vajrayana Buddhism and had a religious association with Drepung Monastery of Lhasa.
  • The monastery is three stories high. It is enclosed by a 282 m long compound wall. Within the complex there are 65 residential buildings. The library of the monastery has valuable old scriptures, mainly Kangyur and Tengyur.
  • The 8 m high glided statue of Lord Buddha dominates the sanctum.
  • The great rotating prayer wheels, priceless thangkas, the drone of monks in prayer, sputtering butter lamps are an evocative vision.
  • The Tawang Monastery has a residential building for the monks, a library, a museum and school for the basic education.
  • Pierced atop a hill dominating everything around and below it is an enormous yellow-roofed Tawang monastery which was originally a large and fortified complex strategically sited where the caravan routes from Tibet, Bhutan and West Kameng met.
  • The place is also famous with the legend of 7th Century A.D., King Kalawangpo and Khandro Drowa Zangmo.

(xvii) Ancient Temple Complex

Masroor Rock Cut Temple

  • Near Kangra, Himachal Pradesh.
  • Famous for remarkable group of rock cut temples.
  • Only example of Nagara style temple built as the rock-cut construction.
  • Masroor temple complex:
    • A group of 15 monolithic rock cut shrines;
    • 14 temples are cut only from the outside, but central temple in this complex is also cut from the inside.
    • Now known as Thakurwada, a term for Vaishnavite temples.
    • Idols of Rama, Lakshmana and Sita are placed inside main sanctum-sanctorum.
    • Sculptural detailing on the doors, lintels, walls, shikharas, and column capitals on the main shrine and other smaller temples consist of figurines of gods and goddesses such as Shiva, Parvati, Laksmi and Saraswati, and floral designs.
  • Presence of the figure of Shiva in the centre of the lintel suggest that the Temple was originally dedicated to Lord Shiva but it was converted into a Vaishnava temple in recent history.

(xviii) Place of oldest Mosque

Methala (Cheramaan Juma Mosque)

  • The Cheramaan Juma Mosque is a mosque in Methala, Kodungallur Taluk, Thrissur District in Kerala.
  • It was built in 629 AD, which makes it the oldest mosque in the Indian subcontinent which is still in use.
  • It was built by Malik Deenar, Persian companion of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, on the orders of the successor of Cheraman Perumal, the Chera King.
  • The mosque was constructed in Kerala style with hanging lamps, making the historicity of its date claims more convincing.
  • The mosque was destroyed by the Portuguese in 1504 when Lopo Soares de Albergaria attacked the port of Kodungallur.
    • The old building was built some time after the 1504 attack.

(xix) Temple Complex dedicated to Shiva

Bhoramdeo Temple:

  • Bhoramdeo Temple is a complex of Hindu temples dedicated to the Lord Shiva in Bhoramdeo, in Chhattisgarh in Kabirdham district.
  • The temple is artificially situated between the mountain ranges, it was built during the period from 7th to 11th century.
  • It comprises a group of four temples of which the earliest is a brick-temple.
  • The main temple is the Bhoramdeo temple built in stone.
    • The temple’s face is east.
    • The temple is a beautiful example of the civilian style.
    • The temple can be entered from three sides.
    • The temple is built on a five feet high dive.
    • From the three entrances can be entered directly in the temple pavilion.
    • The length of the pavilion is 60 feet and the width is 40 feet.
    • There are 4 pillars in the middle of the pavilion and there are 12 pillars on the side, which have kept the terrace of the pavilion.
    • All pillars are very beautiful and artistic.
    • On each pillar there is a keecha, which is handled by the roof.
  • The architectural features with erotic sculptures has given a distinct style akin to the Khajuraho temple and hence the Bhoramdeo complex is known by the sobriquet the “Khajuraho of Chhattisgarh“.
  • Another temple within Bhoramdeo complex is the Madwa Mahal, meaning marriage hall.
    • It was built in 1349 during the reign of Ramchandra Deo of the Nagavanshi dynasty and has a unique Shiva Linga erected over 16 pillars.

(xx) Ancient Education Centre

Nalanda

  • In Nalanda district, Bihar.
  • Taranatha, the 17th century Tibetan Lama, states that the 3rd century BCE Mauryan Emperor, Ashoka, built a great temple at Nalanda.
  • Mahavihara (University):
    • Flourished during Gupta, Harsha and Pala times.
    • A seal identifies Sakraditya (Kumargupta of 5th century) as founder.
    • 7th century Chinese Pilgrims like Hieun Tsang and I-tsing studied here.
      • I-tsing notes that revenues from 200 villages (as opposed to 100 in Hieun Tsang’s time) assigned toward the maintenance of Nalanda.
    • Library called Dharmaganja.
    • Teaching of religious (mainly Mahayana) and other subjects like grammar, logic, literature, astrology, astronomy, and medicine.
    • Influence of Vajrayana during Palas.
  • Destroyed by Bakhtiyar Khilji in 1200 CE.

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