International relations between the two world wars: 1933-1939 (Part-2)

WHAT WERE HITLER’S AIMS IN FOREIGN POLICY, AND HOW SUCCESSFUL HAD HE BEEN BY THE END OF 19387 (a) Hitler aimed to make Germany into a great power again He hoped to achieve this by: destroying the hated Versailles settlement; building up the army – something forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles; recovering lost territory…

International relations between the two world wars: 1933-1939 (Part-1)

RELATIONS BETWEEN JAPAN AND CHINA (a) The Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931 The motives behind this were mixed. The Japanese felt it was essential to keep control of the province because it was a valuable trade outlet. China seemed to be growing stronger under the rule of Chiang Kai-shek, and the Japanese feared this…

Nazi Counter-Revolution: Germany (Part 4)

HOW SUCCESSFUL WAS HITLER IN DOMESTIC AFFAIRS? There are conflicting views about this. Some argue that Hitler’s regime brought many benefits to the majority of the German people. Others believe that his whole career was a complete disaster and that his so-called successes were a myth created by Joseph Goebbels, the Nazi minister of propaganda….

Nazi Counter-Revolution: Germany (Part 3)

HOW WAS HITLER ABLE TO STAY IN POWER? (a) The Enabling Law, 23 March 1933 Hitler was not satisfied with the election result. He was determined that he must be dependent on nobody except his Nazi party. While President Hindenburg was still in shock after the Reichstag fire, Hitler apparently persuaded him that emergency legislation…

Nazi Counter-Revolution: Germany (Part 2)

WHAT DID NATIONAL SOCIALISM STAND FOR? In 1919, Adolf Hitler joined a small right-wing group called the German Workers’ Party. He took over as its leader, and changed its name to the National Socialists (Nazis). The party developed a 25-Point Programme, which – after the failure of the Munich Putsch in 1924 – Hitler explained…

Nazi Counter-Revolution: Germany (Part 1)

THE WEIMAR REPUBLIC After Germany lost the First World War, the German Emperor Kaiser fled and a new democratic government of Germany was declared in February 1919 at the small town of Weimar. It was too dangerous to make a declaration in Berlin where there had just been a revolt by a Communist group called…

Fascist Counter-Revolution: Italy (Part 3)

WHAT BENEFITS DID FASCISM BRING FOR THE ITALIAN PEOPLE? What really mattered to ordinary people was whether the regime’s policies were effective or not. Did Mussolini rescue Italy from weak government as he had promised, or was he, as some of his critics alleged at the time, just a windbag whose government was as corrupt…

Fascist Counter-Revolution: Italy (Part 2)

WHAT DID THE TERM ‘FASCISM’ STAND FOR? It is important to try to define what the term ‘fascist’ stood for, because it was later applied to other regimes and rulers, such as Hitler, Franco (Spain), Salazar (Portugal) and Peron (Argentina), which were sometimes quite different from the Italian version of fascism. Nowadays there is a…

Fascist Counter-Revolution: Italy (Part 1)

The unification of Italy was only completed in 1870, and the new state suffered from economic and political weaknesses. The First World War was a great strain on her economy, and there was bitter disappointment at her treatment by the Versailles settlement. Between 1919 and 1922 there were five different governments, all of which were…

The Chinese Revolution of 1949 (Part-5)

Effects of Chinese Revolution, 1949 and Aftermath Impact on the course of International Relations: In the first place it gave a serious set back to the prestige of United States. The American Government provided lot of economic and military help to the nationalist government of China after the defeat of Japan, still the Communists succeeded…

Mughal Painting

Background The Mughal school of painting has steadily gained recognition as a distinctive style of painting which had a rich tradition to fall back upon, and which reached full maturity during the seventeenth century. It created a living tradition of painting which continued in different forms in different parts of the country long after the glory of…

Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire held sway over a large part of India for nearly three centuries, but a drastic decline in its power and prestige came about by the first half of the eighteenth century. Not only did the political boundaries of the Empire shrink, the decline also saw the collapse of the administrative structure so…