Solution of Previous Years’s Questions for History Optional Mains 2017 [Exclusively For Test Series Enrolled Students]

Enlightenment and Modern ideas

 (i) Major ideas of Enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau
(ii) Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies
(iii) Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism

Major ideas of Enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau and Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies

“Rousseau’s political philosophy contains the seeds of Socialism, Absolutism and Democracy.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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“The Enlightenment represented alternative approaches to modernity, alternative habits of mind and heart, of conscience and sensibility.” Discuss. 

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“…he (Voltaire) was living in the Age of Enlightenment …. The age itself was not enlightened.” — E. Kant. Critically evaluate. [20 Marks]

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“The promptings of the heart are more to be trusted than the logic of the mind.” — Rousseau. Critically evaluate. [20 Marks]

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“The despotic rulers of Europe were influenced by the philosophy of Enlightenment and begun to follow a benevolent policy towards their subjects.” Critically examine. [20 Marks]

OR

“Enlightened despots (Europe) were not necessarily politically liberal.” Critically examine. [10 Marks]

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“For Kant, enlightenment is mankind’s final coming of age, the emancipation of the human consciousness from an immature state of ignorance and error.” Critically examine. [20 Marks]

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“Rousseau strove to reconcile the liberty of the individual and the institution of Government through a new vision of the Contract-Theory of Government.” Critically examine. [10 Marks]

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Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism

“Marxian Communism is primarily the offspring of German Hegelianism and French Socialism.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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“France was more fertile than Britain in producing new Socialist theories and movements, though they bore less concrete results in France than in Britain.” [20 Marks]

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“If we were to define our conception of the State, our answer would be that the State is the banker of the poor. The government would finance and supervise the purchase of productive equipment and the formation of workshops.” In light of the above statement of Louis Blanc, throw light on the Pre-Marxist Socialist Thought in Europe. [20 Marks]

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Origin of Modern Politics

(i) European States System.
(ii) American Revolution and the Constitution.
(iii) French revolution and aftermath, 1789-1815.
(iv) American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery.
(v) British Democratic Politics, 1815- 1850; Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists

American Revolution and the Constitution

“At the news of the Declaration of Independence crowds gathered to cheer, fire guns and cannon and ring church bells in Philadelphia. Boston and other places, but there were many people in America who did not rejoice.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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The American Revolution “was a natural and even expected event in the history of colonial people who had come of age.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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What were the factors that worked in the drafting of the American Constitution? Do you agree with Beard’s view of the Constitution being an Economic Document? [60 Marks]

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How far is it correct to say that every feature of the American Constitution was ultimately of English Origin? [20 Marks]

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Explain the main features of the US Federal Constitution. [10 Marks]

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American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery

“If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that.”. Comment. [20 Marks]

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French revolution and aftermath, 1789-1815

“The writings of the philosophers had a tremendous influence on the minds of the people and created a revolutionary awakening in their minds and formed the intellectual creed of the French Revolution.” Comment. [20 Marks]

OR

“No event as encompassing as the French Revolution occurs in an intellectual vacuum.” Comment. [20 Marks]

OR

“French political writers of the eighteenth century were influenced by Locke and also by the curious contrasts which they perceived between the government of his country and their own.” Comment. [20 Marks]

OR

“If monarchical misrule ignited the French revolution, lofty ideas both inspired and sustained it.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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“What mattered in 1789 – and what made men revolutionary almost in spite of themselves – was the whole ‘revolutionary situation’; and in producing that situation the work of the philosophers played no very important role.” Comment. [20 Marks]

OR

“The connection between the philosophers’ ideas and the outbreak of the French Revolution (1789) is somewhat remote and indirect.” Critically evaluate. [10 Marks]

OR

Critically examine the statement that the French Revolution was not caused by the French philosophers but by the conditions of national life and by the mistakes of the government. [20]

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“Napoleon was the child of the Revolution, but in many ways he reversed the aims and principles of the movement from which he sprang.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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The French Revolution (1789) really achieved far less than what it intended to effect. Do you agree? [20 Marks]

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“At the end of the battle of Sedan (1870)‚ Europe lost a mistress and gained a master.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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“To some extent, the American War of Independence inspired the French Revolution.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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How did Napoleon Bonaparte fuse the old France with the new? [2009, 30 Marks]

OR

How did Napoleon fuse the French of the ancient regime with the France of the Post Revolutionary era? [2012, 30 Marks]

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To what extent did Napoleon’s economic war with England become his undoing? [20 Marks]

OR

“The Continental Blockade was a misconceived idea of economically defeating Great Britain.” Critically examine. [10 Marks]

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“The Declaration of  Rights  was  the  death-warrant  of  the  system  of  privilege, and so  of the ancient regime … Yet in the history of ideas it belonged rather to the past than to the future.” Examine. [20 Marks]

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British Democratic Politics, 1815-1850; Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists

Review the background of the Chartist Movement. Despite its failure how had their demands been met in the succeeding years? [60 Marks]

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“Though reform was inevitable, the Act (1832) by which it was accomplished was open to grave criticism.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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“The roots of Chartism are partly political and partly economic.” Elaborate. [20 Marks]

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Industrialization

(i) English Industrial Revolution: Causes and Impact on Society
(ii) Industrialization in other countries: USA, Germany, Russia, Japan
(iii) Industrialization and Globalization

“The Industrial Revolution put mobility in the place of stability.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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“Protestantism contributed substantially to the rise of capitalism.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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The Industrial Revolution “Changed England in character and culture.” Comment. [20 Marks]

OR

“The oppressive exploitation of the working class in the wake of Industrial Revolution had jolted the social conscience of England.” Elucidate. [10 Marks]

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“Whoever says Industrial Revolution, says cotton.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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“The process of industrialisation in some other countries of Europe was different from that in England.” [20 Marks]

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Nation-State System

(i) Rise of Nationalism in 19th century
(ii) Nationalism: State building in Germany and Italy
(iii) Disintegration of Empires through the emergence of nationalities.

Rise of Nationalism in 19th century

How did Japan develop between 1868 and 1894 ? Did the ‘Restoration of Meiji’ mark a sharp break with the past? [60 Marks]

OR

The years 1853-1894 witnessed the transformation of Japan. Explain. [60 Marks]

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“The Crimean War was the most useless war ever waged.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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Lord Beaconsfield after his return from the Congress of Berlin (1878) boasted: “I have brought peace with honour.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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Nationalism: State building in Germany and Italy

Italy and Germany

“The comparison between Cavour’s and Bismarck’s achievements reveals striking points of resemblance and no less striking points of dissimilarity.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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The unification of Italy and that of Germany constituted a contrast in respect of the ways they were affected and impact they left on later international politics. Elucidate. [60 Marks]

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Italy

Trace the various stages that led to the Unification of Italy between 1848 and 1870. [60 Marks]

OR

Trace the course of the movement for Italian Unification from 1848 with special reference to the contribution of Mazzini. [60 Marks]

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“They have stopped me from making Italy by diplomacy from the North; I will make it by revolution from the South.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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What were the obstacles to Italian unification till 1852? How and with what methods was the unification of Italy achieved? [60 Marks]

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“The unification of Italy completed…the destruction of the European order.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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“Mazzini’s conception of Italian nationality was not exclusive and his dominant ideal was the recreation of moral unity of mankind.” Critically examine. [10 Marks]

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Germany

“Napoleon kindled the national sentiment but German unity was achieved by Bismarck.” Discuss. [60 Marks]

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“It is one of the ironies of history that Napoleon was the creator of modern Germany.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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“The Unification of Germany was the one thing Bismarck was determined to prevent.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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Isolation of France constituted the keystone of Bismarck’s foreign policy. Elucidate. [60 Marks]

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“The political unification of Germany was accomplished solely by Bismarck.” Comment. [20 Marks]

OR

“Bismarck created a new Germany with the policy of ‘blood and iron’.” Comment. [20 Marks]

OR

Bismarck united Germany not by majority of votes and speeches but by a policy of “Blood and Iron”. In the light of this statement assess the contribution of Bismarck to the unification of Germany. [60 Marks]

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“To Bismarck the conclusion of the Treaty of May 20, 1882, was the culmination of his system.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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Was German unification achieved more by ‘coal and iron’ than by ‘blood and iron’? [30 Marks]

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“The language of  narrow  nationalism  held  at  Frankfurt  destroyed  the  German Revolution;  as  the  fatal  idea  of  aggrandizement  of  the  House  of  Savoy  destroyed  the Italian Revolution.” Discuss. [20 Marks]

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Disintegration of Empires through the emergence of nationalities

“Nominally the new Turkey was republican and democratic.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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“The Eastern Question has always been an international question”. Elucidate. [30 Marks]

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Imperialism and Colonialism

(i) South and South-East Asia
(ii) Latin America and South Africa
(iii) Australia
(iv) Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.

Critically examine the culture system in the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) during the nineteenth century. Why was it dismantled? [60 Marks]

OR

What was the culture system in the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) during the 19th century? Why was it dismantled? [60 Marks]

OR

Critically examine the Dutch colonial policy in Indonesia. [30 Marks]

OR

“Holland was engaged in a systematic exploitation of Indonesia in the nineteenth century.” Elucidate. [60 Marks]

OR

Examine the nature of Dutch imperialism in Indonesia. [10 Marks]

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“The Treaty of Nanking is the basic act in the imposing but unstable structure of international relations which governed China for a hundred years.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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Write a critical note on: Importance of the Opium War in the history of China. [20 Marks]

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Discuss the Self-strengthening movement in China. [60 Marks]

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How did the Treaty Port System in China develop between 1840 and 1860? What was its inference on Chinese attitude to foreigners? [60 Marks]

OR

“By 1861, China may be said to have been fully though grudgingly opened to the Westerner.” Comment. [20 Marks]

OR

Why is the period from 1842 to 1900 considered as half a century of humiliations in the history of China? What was the reaction of China? [60 Marks]

OR

Divided into spheres of influence by foreign powers, China in the 19th century presented a sorry spectacle. How did China react to it? [60 Marks]

OR

To what extent did the Western powers bring China under their domination without annexation? [60 Marks]

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Write a critique on the partition of Africa from 1870 to 1914, with particular reference to Germany’s imperial designs in the Continent. [60 Marks]

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“New imperialism was a nationalistic, not an economic phenomena.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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Trace the stages in the partition of Africa after 1870. How did it affect international relations? [60 Marks]

OR

Trace the various stages of European imperialism in Africa in the nineteenth century. [60 Marks]

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“Colonies are like fruits which cling to the tree only till they ripen.” Comment. [10 Marks]

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Write a critical note on: Theory of ‘The New imperialism’ after 1870. [20 Marks]

OR

Discuss the emergence of neo-imperialism in the late nineteenth century. [30 Marks]

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“In all the long annals of Imperialism, the partition of Africa is a remarkable freak.” Comment. [20 Marks]

OR

What do you understand by imperialism? State briefly its unique features in the case of Africa? [20 Marks]

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Trace the growth of British imperialism in South Africa from 1800 to 1907 [10 Marks]

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Revolution and Counter-Revolution

(i) 19th Century European revolutions
(ii) The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921
(iii) Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany
(iv) The Chinese Revolution of 1949

19th Century European revolutions

“For a tired and timid generation Metternich was the necessary man.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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What is Metternich system? Assess its impact on Europe. [10 Marks]

OR

“Most of the European Revolutions of 1848 were nationalist as well as popular insurrections against foreign rule and repressive policy of Metternich.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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“The whole episode that is known as the July Revolution (1830) was fought and won not for the establishment of an extreme democracy but to get rid of the aristocratic and clericalist attitude of the restored Bourbons.” Critically examine. [10 Marks]

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The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921

“The Russian Revolution (1917) was an economic explosion hastened by the stupidities of the autocratic Government”. Comment. [20 Marks]

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Write a critical note on: Lenin’s role in the Russian Revolution of 1917. [20 Marks]

OR

In Russia, Lenin was “the father of socialism, organizer of the revolution and the founder of the new Russian society.” Examine the statement. [1998, 60 Marks]

OR

How did Lenin achieve an abrupt transition from a Monarchical autocratic to a Socialist State? [20]

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Analyze the causes of the Russian Revolutions of 1917. Why was the second Revolution Significant in more than one way? [60 Marks]

OR

What were the causes for the success of Bolshevik Revolution of 1917? Discuss its significance in the history of the world. [60 Marks]

OR

Examine the causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and indicate its significance in world history. [60 Marks]

OR

Account for the overthrow of the Tsarist regime in Russia. [30 Marks]

OR

The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a single revolution which developed two phases. Elucidate. [60 Marks]

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“The impact of the French Revolution (1789) was initially confined the Europe, but, that of the Russia Revolution (1917) was global.” – Critically review. [30 Marks]

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Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany

Critically examine the main features of the foreign policy of Nazi Germany. [60 Marks]

Hitler was “a creature flung to the top by the tides of revolutionary change, or the embodiment of the collective unconsciousness of a people obsessed with violence and death.” Comment. [1984, 20 Marks]

“Extreme nationalism of the Fascist Variety has various faces in various countries, but it has everywhere certain common characteristics.” Comment. [20 Marks]

“Comparison of the fascist regime in Italy with the National Socialist regime of Germany is almost inevitable. The similarities are obvious, but there is one point of difference which is worth mentioning.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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“There was an element of system in Hitler’s foreign policy…. .His outlook was continental.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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‘Corporate State’ was Mussolini’s answer to sociopolitical problems of his country. Elucidate. [60 Marks]

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What were the weaknesses and difficulties of the Weimer Republic? How did Hitler succeed in establishing his dictatorship? [60 Marks]

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Discuss the main characteristics of Fascism. [60 Marks]

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How did the policy of appeasement escalate the problem of Nazi aggrandizement? [30 Marks]

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The Chinese Revolution of 1949

“The turn of the tide against the Kuomintang, consequently, was due as much to its weakness as to Communist strength.” Comment. [20 Marks]

OR

“The failure of Kuomintang against the communist onslaught was unimaginable and it was Mao Tse-tung whose tenacity and innovative approach had accomplished the unthinkable.” Discuss. [2015, 20 Marks]

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“The announcement of the creation of the Peoples’ Republic of China on October 1, 1959 by Mao Zedong ended the civil war between the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the Nationalist Party (KMT).” – Elaborate. [2012, 30 Marks]

 OR

Review the political circumstances in China in the years 1945-49 leading to the establishment of the Communist rule in the land. How did the United States seek to resolve the conflict between the Nationalists and the communists in the period? [60 Marks]

OR

Examine the circumstances in china in the years 1945-49. What did the United States do to resolve the conflict between the Nationalists and the Communists there? [2002, 60 Marks]

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Discuss the circumstances leading to the Chinese Revolution of 1949 and analyze its significance. [2005, 60 Marks]

OR

Critically analysis the cause and the results of the Chinese revolution of 1949. [2006, 60 Marks]

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World Wars

(i) 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars: Societal implications
(ii) World War I: Causes and consequences
(iii) World War II: Causes and consequence

Critically examine the main features of the foreign policy of Nazi Germany. [60 Marks]

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What led to the formation of the Berlin-Rome Tokyo axis? Indicate its impact on international politics. [1986, 60 Marks]

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Critically examine the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Did he want to introduce a sort of socialism? [60 Marks]

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“The Anglo-Japanese Treaty (1902) marks a milestone in the development of Japan as an Asiatic power.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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Show how the Spanish Civil War was a prelude to World War II. 

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“The Treaty of Versailles was merely an armistice for twenty years.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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“The Manchurian crisis decided the fate of the league of Nations.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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“The Communist international and the League of Nations both announced the end of the Balance of Power.” Comment. [1996, 20 Marks]

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Analyze the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919 and examine the validity of Germany’s objections to the Treaty. [60 Marks]

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One of the most important consequences of the Second World War was “division of Europe”, eastern and western. Comment. [20 Marks]

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“The most important single factor … in the year following 1919 was the French demand for security.” Comment. [10 Marks]

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“Treaty of Versailles contained the seeds of future conflicts.” Comment. [10 Marks]

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“In the long run, the Locarno Treaty (December 1925) was destructive both of the Treaty of Versailles and of the Covenant.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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“Hitler did not really want a World War. His intention was only a short war with Poland.” (A. J. P. Taylor). Comment. [20 Marks]

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“The peace of Versailles lacked moral validity from the start.” Critically evaluate. [20 Marks]

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“By 2014, the sick man of Europe was no longer just Turkey: it was Europe itself.” Explain. [20 Marks]

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“Any single explanation for the outbreak of the First World War likely to be too simple. An amalgam of factors intellectual, social, economic as well as political and diplomatic contributed to this horrifying conflict of monumental propositions.” – Explain. [30 Marks]

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“The Russo-Japanese War helped in the rise of Japan as a great power.” [10 Marks]

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“The Berlin Congress (1878) failed to unlock the Eastern Question. Though there was no longer major war in Europe for nearly three decades after the Treaty of Berlin, it contained the seeds of many future wars.” Critically Evaluate. [20 Marks]

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“League of Nations is a League of Notions.” Comment. [10]

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The World after World War II

(i) Emergence of two power blocs
(ii) Emergence of Third World and non-alignment
(iii) UNO and the global disputes

Emergence of two power blocs

In the post -Second World War scenario friends in war did not remain friends in peace. Examine the truth of this view in the period of your study. [60 Marks]

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Critically examine the various dimensions and phases of the cold war between 1947 and 1962. [60 Marks]

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“After World War II, the strategy of the West towards Soviet bloc crystallized as a ‘policy of containment’.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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Discuss the circumstances  leading  to  the  Suez  Crisis  of  1956  and  examine  its repercussions on global politics. [10 Marks]

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“The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan were considered by Russian Bloc as a weapon against Russia in order to restrict her influence.” Critically examine. [20 Marks]

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Outline the circumstances Leading to détente. [10 Marks]

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Emergence of Third World and non-alignment

Would you argue that the Non-Aligned Movement played a crucial role in promoting a climate of peace? [30 Marks]

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UNO and the global disputes

“The Security Council is the heart of the United Nations.” Comment. [10 Marks]

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Examine the peace keeping efforts of the United Nations Organization. [30 Marks]

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Liberation from Colonial Rule

(i) Latin America-Bolivar
(ii) Arab World-Egypt
(iii) Africa-Apartheid to Democracy
(iv) South-East Asia-Vietnam

How did the Japanese occupation of South-East Asian countries during the Second World War give a boost to nationalism in the regions? Explain with examples. [60 Marks]

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Trace the growth of Arab nationalism after the First World War. How far was it a reaction to oil imperialism? [60 Marks]

OR

Arab Nationalism and Oil- these were the principal factors complicating the relations of the West Asian countries with the outside world. Do you agree? [60 Marks]

OR

“Arab nationalism and oil – these were the principal Factors in complicating the relations of Middle Eastern countries with the outside world.” Comment. [30 Marks]

OR

“One of the last Strongholds – of oil imperialism and European colonialism it (Middle East) cultivates a fiery nationalism as a weapon against foreign oppression.” Comment. [20 Marks]

OR

Trace the growth of Arab nationalism after the First World War. How far was it a reaction to Oil Imperialism? [20 Marks]

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The Arab nationalism had a peculiar character. It stood for nation independence for separate Arab States as well as for the unity of all Arabs irrespective of their state boundaries.” – Examine. [30 Marks]

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Discuss the aims of the establishment of the Arab League and assess it role in safeguarding the interests of the Arab nations. [60 Marks]

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“Turkish renaissance guided by Kemal Pasha revolutionized the Turkish life at many levels.”Amplify. [60 Marks]

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Give a brief account of the struggle against ‘Apartheid’ in South Africa. [60 Marks]

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Why did Vietnam go through thirty years of war after the Second World War? [30 Marks]

OR

Trace the significant role played by Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam’s struggle for freedom. [10]

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Explain how American imperialism in Philippines differed with European imperialism in Indonesia and Indo-China? [30 Marks]

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Decolonization and Underdevelopment

(i) Factors constraining development: Latin America, Africa

Write a critical note on the process of decolonization accelerated by the Second World War. [60 Marks]

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Unification of Europe

(i) Post War Foundations: NATO and European Community
(ii) Consolidation and Expansion of European Community
(iii) European Union

“The Brussels Treaty of 17 March, 1948 paved the way for the formation of NATO.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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“NATO in many ways symbolized the key role that the United States had come to play in Europe.” Comment. [20 Marks]

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“The collapse of Berlin Wall in 1989 brought new ideas of co-operation in Europe.” Critically evaluate. [10 Marks]

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“The European union is the new sick man of Europe.” critically evaluate. [25 Marks]

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Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World

(i) Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet communism and the Soviet Union, 1985-1991
(ii) Political Changes in Eastern Europe 1989-2001
(iii) End of the cold war and US ascendancy in the World as the lone superpower

Discuss the main factors leading to the collapse of the Soviet Union. [60 Marks]

OR

Analyse the factors for the collapse of Soviet Communism and Soviet Union during 1985-1991. [60 Marks]

OR

“By the 1980s, the Communist system of the Soviet Union was incapable of maintaining the country’s role as a Superpower.” Explain this statement. [25 Marks]

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Analyze the factors leading to the end of the Cold war and account for the U.S. ascendancy in the world. [60 Marks]

OR

Account for the factors that brought about the end of the Cold War. [60 Marks]

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What factors contributed to the emergence of a unipolar world? [20 Marks]

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“The essence of Perestroika is for people to feel they are country’s master.” —Gorbachev. Critically evaluate. [10 Marks]

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“With the Cold War over and the Soviet Union gone, the face of international diplomacy has undergone a metamorphosis.” Critically examine. [10 Marks]

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  • Ahmed Touseef

    Can we download these answers in ppt or pdf, if enrolled for test series…

  • Harini

    when i click the link it says it requires password.. whats the password?

    • That is for test series enrolled students or on payment basis

  • Please let me know the amount to be paid for accessing the answers of previous years questions.

  • Please let me know the amount to be paid for accessing the answers of previous years questions(ancient, medieval, modern and world history).

  • nitish kumar singh

    thank u sir

  • Puranjana Ganta

    dear sir , what is the amount one have to pay for accessing to the answers?

  • pamita

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    pamita