1. Sources:

Archaeological sources: Exploration, Excavation, Epigraphy, Numismatics and Monuments.

Literary sources:

  • Indigenous: Primary and secondary ; poetry, scientific literature, literature , literature in regional languages, religious literature.
  • Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.

2. Pre-history and Proto-history:

Geographical factors

Hunting and gathering (Paleolithic and Mesolithic)

Beginning of agriculture (Neolithic)

Chalcolithic Culture

The Neolithic-Chalcolithic Cultures Outside The Indus System

3. Indus Valley Civilization:

Indus Valley Civilization: Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture

4. Megalithic Cultures:

Megalithic Cultures: Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.

5. Aryans and Vedic Period:

Expansions of Aryans in India
Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.

6. Period of Mahajanapadas:

Formation of States (Mahajanapada):Republics and monarchies

Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage

Spread of Jainism and Buddhism (Part 1)

Spread of Jainism and Buddhism (Part 2)

Spread of Jainism and Buddhism (Part 3)

Rise of Magadha and Nandas

Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact and Early Geek-Roman Accounts on India

7. Mauryan Empire:

Mauryan Empire: Foundation of the Mauryan Empire , Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration; Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature. Disintegration of the empire

Sungas and Kanvas

8. Post – Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas):
Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.

9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India:

Kharavela

The Satavahanas

Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration , economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.

10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas:

Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas: Polity and administration , Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.

Vakataka Dynasty

Vardhana Dynasty And Chinese Buddhist Travelers’ Accounts

11. Regional States during Gupta Era:

The Kadambas,

Pallavas,

Chalukyas of Badami;

Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions.

Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture;

Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects.

Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni,

The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local Government ; Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.

12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History:

Languages and texts,

Major stages in the evolution of art and architecture,

Mathura School of art, Gandhara School of Arts, Amaravati School of Art

Major philosophical thinkers and schools: The Systems of Indian Philosophy

Major philosophical thinkers and schools: Six Schools of Indian Philosophy

Major philosophical thinkers and schools: Ajivika and Charvaka School

Major philosophical thinkers and schools: Shaktism, Tantricism and other schools

Ideas in Science and Mathematics.

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  • Karan

    Sir,all these topics covers which reference books so that we can just read this rather then that book…And these ancient ,medieval history notes for optional ?

    • These are take from many sources. There is no one particular book. And yes, it is mainly for optional but anyone can goo through

  • Siddhartha

    Sir this is a good initiative.. Can you tell us any more books that we need to read for good coverage of optional

  • snehil

    thanks for this

  • shafi

    hopes you will upload all the topics

  • sujith

    sir, please tell me some best source for archaelogical,literary evidance and foreign accounts in chap 1 history optional.
    how to prepare map questions
    my prelims cutoff was expected around 80 . many are speculating around 120 in forumias.am i eligible for mains.

  • Vengatesh

    I am shocked to see this website!
    Proud to chosen history as my optional !

  • Thank you very much, Sir for your able guidance. I request you to upload the following topics of Ancient Indian History which will make the whole package all encompassing.

    5.Aryans and Vedic Period:

    Expansions of Aryans in India
    Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.
    8. 8. Post – Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas):
    Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.

    Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration , economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.

    11. Regional States during Gupta Era:
    The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local Government ; Growth of ar t and archi tecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.

    12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History:

    Languages and texts,

    Major stages in the evolution of art and architecture,

    Major philosophical thinkers and schools: Shaktism, Tantricism and other schools

    Ideas in Science and Mathematics.

    13. Early Medieval India, 750-1200: Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs
    – The Cholas: administration, village economy and society
    – “Indian Feudalism”
    – Agrarian economy and urban settlements
    – Trade and commerce
    – Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order
    – Condition of women
    – Indian science and technology

    • I will try but it will take time

      • Chandra shekhar

        Sir, not all the topics have hyperlink to open up study material. can you please make all the topics as hyperlinks to open study material

  • Sir, waiting for the rest of the topics. Hopes you Will post it as early as possible. This is in-depth coverage. Can you share your reference books with us? There are some “grey areas” in the Syllabus, which standard books don’t provide in one place, like literary sources. To people like me, who do Self study, these areas are more worrying.I request you to cover Such topics first. Thanks.

    • I will cover all areas whatever is in syllabus that also includes grey areas. But it will take time.

  • suneel535

    Sir,
    Waiting for your remaining notes. Last year I scored 81 in Paper I and 116 in Paper II history optional.
    I left IGNOU as it takes much time but after seeing your site, I am feeling happy that I can cover most of the grey areas also.
    Please upload the remaining topics so that we can revise it atleast twice before this year mains.

    If possible can you please suggest some tips on how to increase score in History optional specially in Paper I, as UPSC is asking in corner areas also.

    Eargerly waiting for your updates Sir.

    • Thiyaga Rajan

      Hello Suneel !!! I’m really confused with the history optional. I thought it is enough to study just old NCERT’s. Can you give some advice and strategies for History optional?… Mail me your opinion- thiyaga1414@gmail.com

  • Pankaj Nimbolkar

    Sir
    When will you complete chapter no 11 of Ancient India.

  • Ravindranath

    Superb work!!! waiting for the remaining topics…pls try to upload as soon as possible

  • Janmejay Kumar

    Thanks a lot for your nice work but I want to know is it sufficient for history optional or we have to go through some additional materials also…

  • arjun

    Some topics are not covered .Will they be covered in future?

  • Ajay

    First of all Hats off sir for your praiseworthy work. Sir, It is my humble request please upload topic wise past years questions also for Ancient & Medieval. Thanks

  • Ajay

    Sir, first of all hats off for your praiseworthy work.Sir, It is my humble request please upload topic wise past years questions also for Ancient & Medieval(like Modern & world). Thanks & Regards

    • Soon Ancient and Medieval question bank will be uploaded

  • Ashish

    Dear Sir,
    You have been doing great job for history optional specifically. Can you please write articles on how to tackle with history optional starting from his month of January until the time of mains exam. It will be really helpful for aspirant like me preparing in isolation at home.

  • Jitendra

    First of all, I really salute your dedication to help students. I m totally confused as regards ancient and medieval history. I bought A L Basham’s A wonder that was India but I don’t think I should waste my time going through this book. It would be so kind of you if you completed the ancient history articles before March.Also if you could suggest some books for the chapters of ancient indian history not covered by you.
    Praiseworthy work Sir,Keep it up.

  • Neeraj

    sir firstly THANK YOU for your great and selfless job…..in world history portion its been a great help to me..made notes from ur contents..[actually its been much more reliable than s baliya classes which i’ve recently done.]…to me ancient is a bit tougher because so many source are there in market and exams are not too far……so u r requested to upload ancient indian remaining topics as soon as possible for you…………

  • Simmu Sandhu

    May i know your sources sir so that i can allign my prepartion accordingly .

  • Mukul

    Sr..wen will b rest of topics covered..

  • HariKrishna

    Thank you very much sir for your notes which help me a lot but please upload remaining notes as soon as possible sir.. Im totally depends on your notes it self..

  • mohit

    sir please provide vedic age notes

  • charith

    sir,can you please explain the question,regarding credibility of sruti literature

    • I have already uploaded the answer of this question.

  • Akbar

    Please hyperlink the rest of the topics.

  • Tanuja

    Sir plz upload the previous question bank in between the 1966 to 1979 for history optional ,it’s very difficult to find plz help me sir

  • ashish

    sir is there any good book for ancient how will be upinder singh

  • Palsaniya

    Sir please add search option also. Otherwise so crisps notes availability
    Thanks

  • RAJJ

    sir please add the chalcolithic and other notes too

  • Vaibhav

    Please add archaeological sources and foreign accounts…..

  • sheel

    Sir…a big thanks for this initiative!!!!
    sir if possible please upload the remaining parts of Ancient History at least….

  • Nisar

    Sir pls give me marathi medium booklist for history optional subject…if you know pls tell me as soon as possible…

  • Sir please upload remaining ancient india topics

  • Karnita Singh

    sir plz post left of the topics…

  • mahi

    I request you to upload the following topics of Ancient Indian History which will make the whole package all encompassing.
    5.Aryans and Vedic Period:
    Expansions of Aryans in India
    Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.
    8. 8. Post – Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas):
    Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.
    Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration , economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.
    11. Regional States during Gupta Era:
    The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local Government ; Growth of ar t and archi tecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.
    12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History:
    Languages and texts,
    Major stages in the evolution of art and architecture,
    Major philosophical thinkers and schools: Shaktism, Tantricism and other schools
    Ideas in Science and Mathematics.
    13. Early Medieval India, 750-1200: Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs
    – The Cholas: administration, village economy and society
    – “Indian Feudalism”
    – Agrarian economy and urban settlements
    – Trade and commerce
    – Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order
    – Condition of women
    – Indian science and technology

  • manish

    sir,plz post left of the topic

  • Astha Mahawar

    Dear Sir,
    This is a very noble initiative of your’s and I really thank you for it. But please tell the time limit when you are going to complete all the remaining topics of history, especially Ancient Indian History because its hard to find good material anywhere. Please do tell because I am waiting for it for almost 2 years and I need them now desperately.

  • sam

    sir. i find upinder singh book very vast. even if i finish it once i will be unable to revise it. what shall i do. any substitute to reading ancient india.

  • ruhina

    Hello Sir, Please upload the other topics too. thank you. Its a great initiative.