Solution: Daily Problem Practice [Ancient India: Day 3]: 2020 Mains [History Optional]

Solution: Daily Problem Practice [Ancient India: Day 3]: 2020 Mains [History Optional]

Q. Identify the following places marked on the map and write a short note of about 30 words each. Locational hints for each of the places marked  on the map are given below seriatim. [2.5 x 8= 20 Marks]

Daily Problem Day 3

(i) PGW site


  • In Meerut district, UP.
  • Capital of Kuru.
  • Jaina tradition:
    • Place where Rishabha, the first tirthankara, lived.
    • Mahavira visited.
  • OCP followed by PGW.
  • Habitation:
    • Wattle-and-daub and mud huts.
    • Unbaked bricks.
  • Chert and jasper weights found.
  • Horse bones found.
  • 2nd century BCE–3rd century CE: (Urbanisation)
    • Pottery:
      • Wheel-turned red ware.
      • Designs such as fish, leaves, flowers, svastikas, triratnas, loops, circles, and other geometric patterns.
    • Habitation:
      • Planed settlement.
      • Burnt brick, ring well found.
    • Artefacts:
      • Objects: iron, copper, ivory, terracotta figurines.
      • rings and beads
      • potsherds and seal
      • Coins– Yaudheyas and Kushana
    • Terracotta:
      • Humped bull
      • torso of the bodhisattva Maitreya.

(ii) Late Harappan site


  • On Saurashtra peninsula, Gujarat.
  • Mature and late Harappan phase.
  • Also post-Harappan site.
  • Acacia wood used in construction.
  • Artefacts:
    • Dishes
    • BRW and high-necked jars.
    • Evidence of shell working
    • Plant remains:- Bajra, rice and Millet were found.

(iii) Chalcolithic Site

Golbai Sasan

  • In Puri district, Odisha.
  • Neolithic and Chalcolithic site.
  • Neolithic period:
    • Post-holes found.
    • Red and grey handmade pottery with cord impressions.
    • Bone tools found including weapons and ornaments.
  • Chalcolithic period:
    • Circular huts with hearths and post holes.
    • Both handmade and wheel-made pottery was found, including BRW.
    • Copper artefacts and bone artefacts (including weapons and ornaments) found.
  • Agriculture: rice, moong.
  • Animal Bones of cattle, goat, deer, and elephant.
  • The polished stone tools included axes, adzes, and shouldered celts.
  • A human figurine found.

(iv) Chalcolithic Site


  • In west Nimar district, MP.
  • Chalcolithic and Late Harappan Site.
  • Navdatoli is the largest settlement of Malwa culture.
  • Habitation:
    • Circular or rectangular shape.
    • Circular wattle-and-daub houses, post holes
    • Floors plastered with lime.
    • Ancient village inhabited through four stages.
  • Chulhas and storage jars found in houses.
  • Pottery:
    • BRW, grey ware with painted
  • Domestication of animals.
  • Microliths found.

(v) Harappan site

Sutkagen Dor

  • Makran coast, Pakistan.
  • Western-most Harappan site.
  • citadel, lower town, fortification wall of stones.
  • A coastal route linking the Gujarat sites such as Lothal and Dholavira to sites such as Sutkagen-dor on the Makran coast.
  • Important point along Harappan to Mesopotamia trade route.
  • Stone vessels, stone arrowheads, copper arrowheads, shell beads, pottery, a copper-bronze disc found.

(vi) Chalcolithic and Neolithic site


  • In Saran district of Bihar.
  • Neolithic, Chalcolithic and Iron Age settlements.
  • Neolithic period was earlier than 2500 B.C.
  • Practiced agriculture with evidence of wheat, rice, mung, masur, peas found.
  • The agricultural tools were made of stone and bone.
  • Bone tools are special feature
  • They practised hunting also.
  • Bones of domesticated and wild animals are found.
  • People lived in wattle and daub huts, circular in plan.
  • Microliths are also found.
  • Pottery:
    • Hand-made, ‘red ware’ and BRW.
    • Post firing painting on pottery.
  • Chalcolithic culture: 1600 BCE
    • BRW pottery found.
    • Two phases:
      • The first phase is without iron.
      • Second has iron without NBPW.
  • Later period shows the emergence of the N.B.P.W. culture.

(vii) Ancient trading post


  • In Northern Afghanistan.
  • IVC trading post:- Connected with lapis lazuli mines located in the surrounding area.
  • Finds:
    • One seal with a short inscription,
    • Square seals with animal motif,
    • clay models of cattle with carts and
    • painted pottery with Harappan design,
    • jars, beakers, bronze objects, gold pieces, lapis lazuli beads,
    • shell bangles.

(viii) PGW site


  • In Shravasti district, U.P.
  • Centre of Buddhists and Jainas.
  • Capital of the Kosala Mahajanapada during 6th century BC.
  • On the northern trade routes.
  • Many ancient idols, inscriptions, stupas and viharas were found.
  • Birthplace of the Tirthankara Sambhavanath in Jainism.
  • The Chinese Pilgrim Xuanzang found the city in ruins.
  • PGW and NBPW site.
  • Structural remains at PGW levels: wattle-and-daub and mud huts.


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  • Name your file as your name and date. For example, if your name is Ashok Kumar and you are sending answer of Day 1, your file should be named as AshokKumarday1.pdf
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