Solution: Daily Problem Practice [Ancient India: Day 3]: 2020 Mains [History Optional]
Q. Identify the following places marked on the map and write a short note of about 30 words each. Locational hints for each of the places marked on the map are given below seriatim. [2.5 x 8= 20 Marks]
(i) PGW site
- In Meerut district, UP.
- Capital of Kuru.
- Jaina tradition:
- Place where Rishabha, the first tirthankara, lived.
- Mahavira visited.
- OCP followed by PGW.
- Wattle-and-daub and mud huts.
- Unbaked bricks.
- Chert and jasper weights found.
- Horse bones found.
- 2nd century BCE–3rd century CE: (Urbanisation)
- Wheel-turned red ware.
- Designs such as fish, leaves, flowers, svastikas, triratnas, loops, circles, and other geometric patterns.
- Planed settlement.
- Burnt brick, ring well found.
- Objects: iron, copper, ivory, terracotta figurines.
- rings and beads
- potsherds and seal
- Coins– Yaudheyas and Kushana
- Humped bull
- torso of the bodhisattva Maitreya.
(ii) Late Harappan site
- On Saurashtra peninsula, Gujarat.
- Mature and late Harappan phase.
- Also post-Harappan site.
- Acacia wood used in construction.
- BRW and high-necked jars.
- Evidence of shell working
- Plant remains:- Bajra, rice and Millet were found.
(iii) Chalcolithic Site
- In Puri district, Odisha.
- Neolithic and Chalcolithic site.
- Neolithic period:
- Post-holes found.
- Red and grey handmade pottery with cord impressions.
- Bone tools found including weapons and ornaments.
- Chalcolithic period:
- Circular huts with hearths and post holes.
- Both handmade and wheel-made pottery was found, including BRW.
- Copper artefacts and bone artefacts (including weapons and ornaments) found.
- Agriculture: rice, moong.
- Animal Bones of cattle, goat, deer, and elephant.
- The polished stone tools included axes, adzes, and shouldered celts.
- A human figurine found.
(iv) Chalcolithic Site
- In west Nimar district, MP.
- Chalcolithic and Late Harappan Site.
- Navdatoli is the largest settlement of Malwa culture.
- Circular or rectangular shape.
- Circular wattle-and-daub houses, post holes
- Floors plastered with lime.
- Ancient village inhabited through four stages.
- Chulhas and storage jars found in houses.
- BRW, grey ware with painted
- Domestication of animals.
- Microliths found.
(v) Harappan site
- Makran coast, Pakistan.
- Western-most Harappan site.
- citadel, lower town, fortification wall of stones.
- A coastal route linking the Gujarat sites such as Lothal and Dholavira to sites such as Sutkagen-dor on the Makran coast.
- Important point along Harappan to Mesopotamia trade route.
- Stone vessels, stone arrowheads, copper arrowheads, shell beads, pottery, a copper-bronze disc found.
(vi) Chalcolithic and Neolithic site
- In Saran district of Bihar.
- Neolithic, Chalcolithic and Iron Age settlements.
- Neolithic period was earlier than 2500 B.C.
- Practiced agriculture with evidence of wheat, rice, mung, masur, peas found.
- The agricultural tools were made of stone and bone.
- Bone tools are special feature
- They practised hunting also.
- Bones of domesticated and wild animals are found.
- People lived in wattle and daub huts, circular in plan.
- Microliths are also found.
- Hand-made, ‘red ware’ and BRW.
- Post firing painting on pottery.
- Chalcolithic culture: 1600 BCE
- BRW pottery found.
- Two phases:
- The first phase is without iron.
- Second has iron without NBPW.
- Later period shows the emergence of the N.B.P.W. culture.
(vii) Ancient trading post
- In Northern Afghanistan.
- IVC trading post:- Connected with lapis lazuli mines located in the surrounding area.
- One seal with a short inscription,
- Square seals with animal motif,
- clay models of cattle with carts and
- painted pottery with Harappan design,
- jars, beakers, bronze objects, gold pieces, lapis lazuli beads,
- shell bangles.
(viii) PGW site
- In Shravasti district, U.P.
- Centre of Buddhists and Jainas.
- Capital of the Kosala Mahajanapada during 6th century BC.
- On the northern trade routes.
- Many ancient idols, inscriptions, stupas and viharas were found.
- Birthplace of the Tirthankara Sambhavanath in Jainism.
- The Chinese Pilgrim Xuanzang found the city in ruins.
- PGW and NBPW site.
- Structural remains at PGW levels: wattle-and-daub and mud huts.
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