(1) Quilon / Kollam / Desinganadu:
- It is an old seaport and city on the Laccadive Sea coast in Kerala, India on Ashtamudi Lake.
- Kollam shares fame with Pattanam (Muziris) as an ancient seaport on the Malabar Coast of India from the early centuries before the Christian era. Kollam was a flourishing port of the Chera Dynasty until the formation of the Venad kingdom, when it became the capital of the independent Venad kingdom. Before that, Kollam was considered one of the four early entrepots in global sea trade during the 13th century, along with Alexandria and Cairo in Egypt, the Chinese city of Quanzhou, and Malaccain the Malaysian archipelago.
- Fed by the Chinese trade, it was mentioned by Ibn Battuta in the 14th century as one of the five Indian ports he had seen during the course of his twenty-four year travels. Desinganadu’s rajas exchanged embassies with Chinese rulers while there was a flourishing Chinese settlement at Kollam.
- In the 9th Century, on his way to Canton, China, Persian merchant Sulaiman al-Tajir found Kollam to be the only port in India visited by huge Chinese junks. Marco Polo, the Venician traveller, who was in Chinese service under Kublai Khan in 1275, visited Kollam and other towns on the west coast, in his capacity as a Chinese mandarin.
- The Portuguese were the first Europeans to establish a trading center in Tangasseri, Kollam in 1502. In 1517 the Portuguese built the St. Thomas Fort in Thangasseri, which was destroyed in the subsequent wars with the Dutch. In 1661 the Dutch took possession of the city. The remnants of the old Portuguese Fort, later renovated by the Dutch, can be found at Thangasseri. In the 18th century Travancore conquered Kollam, followed by the British in 1795.
- It is Gateway to Rayalaseema. It was ruled by Cholas and later by Kakatiya kings in the 12th and 13th Centuries. Later on it became an independent part of the country under Jagirdars. Late it came under the influence of Vijayanagar Kings and it was during the 16th Century that Achyuta Raya built the Kurnool Fort.
- The town came under the influence of Moghal Emperor Aurangazeb in 1686. Later the town was ruled by Nawabs from Dawood Khan to Gulam Rasool Khan (1823). In 1839 the British Government took over control.