Compulsory English Paper (Civil Services Mains) 2005

Compulsory English Paper (Civil Services Mains) 2005

1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following: (100)
(a) Environment and Conservation
(b) Role of Women in Social Transformation
(c) Nuclear Energy in War and Peace
(d) India’s Foreign Policy and World Power
(e) Television and its Impact on Youth

2. Read the following passage and answer in your own words the questions that follow: (5 x 15 = 75)
It is wrong to believe that science has totally eclipsed literature with its inspiring zeal. That  literature plays a subordinate role to science is equally untrue. Nevertheless, it is undeniable that  science has comparatively a wider range for its impact on the physical world than literature. But that  does not mean that literature has been incorporated in the realm of science to the extent that it loses  its distinct individuality. The reality is that both co-exist without the one overshadowing the other,  Those who think that science has pushed literature into shade reducing it to a non-entity seem to be  simply imaginative and illogical in the comparisons of their respective merits. It is no doubt unquestionable that products of science are of greater material value than those which make an   emotional appeal, e.g., a bridge is of greater use to the public than a poem. But thereby one should  not ignore the importance of a poem which will continue to appeal to human mind for time to come.  It is indisputable that a scientific theory like the one propounded by Einstein is not without its  philosophical import as it lays its impress on the future growth of literature. But to be effective in  this respect, science should unfold its principles by appealing to human emotions and not through  crude and concrete material facts. Darwin’s theory of Natural Selection in its exposition of the  evolution of man by appeal to emotions and imagination of men has been conducive to the growth of  nineteenth century literature. Mans emotional attitudes to life and vicissitudes of his fortune are  colored not only by his inherited instincts and faith in his fate but also by his hope in point of  longevity of life and betterment of future prospects. Oriented by a scientific theory, they give a  colour to literature.

Literature feeds the emotional and imaginative hunger of man in this perspective science will  not oust literature but enrich it by its impact on human life. Science can provide amenities of life for  human comfort but fails to lend or impart spiritual pleasure Delight that literature instills in man far  transcends the comforts which science provides.

(a) What is the basic contribution of science to humankind?
(b) What aspect of human life is fulfilled by works of literature?
(c) How have Darwin’s and Einstein’s theories proved conducive to the growth of literature?
(d) How is science friendly and not hostile to the growth of literature?
(e) Briefly enumerate the key ideas in the passage.

3. Make a precis of the following passage in your own words in about 220 to 240 words. Marks will he deducted if the precis is not written on the separate precis sheets provided and if it is longer or  shorter than the prescribed limit. State the number of words used by you in the precis at its end and  securely fasten the precis-sheets inside the answer-book. (75)

Gautama, the Buddha, has suffered as much as anyone from critics without a sense of history.  He has been cried up, and cried down, with an equal lack of historical imagination”. Buddhism came  to be widely known in the west in the latter part of the 19th century when a wave of scepticism  spread over the world as a result of the growth of science and enlightenment. Positivism, agnosticism  atheism and ethical humanism found wide support. In much of the literature of doubt and disbelief,  the name of Buddha is mentioned with respect. The humanists honour him as one of the earliest  protagonists of their cause- the happiness the dignity, and the mental integrity of mankind.

Those  who declare that man cannot know reality and others who affirm that there is no reality to know, use  his name. Agnostics quote his example. Social idealists, ethical mystic’s rationalist prophets are all  attracted by his teaching.  Great as is the value of the Buddha’s teaching for our age, we cannot hope to understand its  true significance without reference to the environment in which he lived. This effort of historical  imagination is not easy. To view the Buddha as a thinker of the sixth century B.C., living, moving  and teaching in its peculiar conditions, is a task of extreme difficulty and delicacy; and the work of  reconstruction can never be complete. But we may be reasonably certain that it yields a picture  which in its main outlines, at least, must correspond fairly well to the reality.  The supremacy of the ethical is the clue to the teaching of the Buddha. His conceptions of life  and the universe are derived from his severely practical outlook. The existence of everything  depends on a cause. If we remove the cause, the effect will disappear. If the source of all suffering is  destroyed, suffering will disappear. The only way in which we can remove the cause of suffering is  by purifying the heart and following the moral law. Man is not divine but is to become divine. His  divine status is something to be built up by good thoughts, good words, and good deeds. The ego  consists of the feelings that burn us, of the passions we brood over, of the desires that hunt us and of  the decisions we make. These are the things that give life its dramatic character. There is nothing  absolute and permanent in them.

That is why we can become something different from what we are.  The reality of the person is the creative will. When we deny the clamour of emotions, stay the stream  of things, silence the appetites of body, we feel the power of self within our own being.  For the Buddha, the impulse to dharma, to justice and kindliness is operative in things, and its  efficient activity will mean the reduction of disorder, cruelty and oppression. Dharma is organic to  existence and its implication of karma or right action is the builder of the world. There is not in the  Buddha’s teaching that deep personal loyalty, passion of love, and intimate dialogue between soul  and soul resembling closely in its expression of earthly love. And yet the essence of religion, the  vision of a reality which stands beyond and within the passing flux of immediate things, the intuitive  loyalty to something larger than and beyond oneself, and absolute active in the world, is in him.  We find in Gautama, the Buddha, in powerful combination, spiritual profundity and moral  strength of the highest order and a discreet intellectual reserve.

He is one of those rare spirits who  bring to men a realization of their own divinity and make the spiritual life seem adventurous and  attractive, so that they may go forth into the world with a new interest and a new joy of heart. While  his great intellect and wisdom gave him comprehension of the highest truth, his warm heart led him  to devote his life to save from sorrow suffering humanity. The greatness of his personality, his  prophetic zeal, and burning love for suffering humanity made a deep impression on those with whom  he lived; but his true greatness stands out clearer and brighter as the ages pass, and even the sceptical  minded are turning to him with a more real appreciations a deeper reverence and a truer worship. He  is one of those few heroes of humanity who have made epochs in the history of our race, with a  message for other times as well as their own.

4. (a) Correct the following sentences:  (10)
(i) Too great a variety of studies destruct the mind.
(ii) The whole fleet of their ships were captured
(iii) Each of these students have done their work.
(iv) None but fools has ever believed it.
(v) He is one of the cleverest boys that has passed through the school.
(vi) My friend, philosopher and guide have come.
(vii) The majority are opposed to this proposal.
(viii) He told me that he saw his father last month.
(ix) If he would have worked hard, he would have passed the examination.
(x) Unless he will be more careful, he will not recover.

(b) Add the suffix ‘able’ or ‘ible’ to each of the following words making necessary changes in spelling. Write out the “new” words. (10)
(i) Advice
(ii) Contempt
(iii) Force
(iv) Access
(v) Value
(vi) Reduce
(vii) Discern
(viii) Agree
(ix) Detach
(x) Reverse

(c) Use the following phrases in your own sentences so as to bring out their meaning: (5)
(i) Apple of discord
(ii) A bolt from the blue
(iii) A feather in one’s cap
(iv) Achilles’ heel
(v) A man of letters

5. (a) Which of the two words within brackets in the following sentences is correct in the context? (10)
(i) Poets often (sore, soar) to great heights of imagination.
(ii) Knowledge (proceeds, proceeds) from the Goddess of Learning.
(iii) The tower was struck by (lightning, lightening) and fell down.
(iv) Kanpur lies on the air (rout, route) to Calcutta.
(v) Everyone is (jealous, zealous) of him.
(vi) The crocodile emerged from the river and (seized, ceased) a goat.
(vii) He was found in (collusion, collision) with the plotters.
(viii) Wicked persons are not (illegible, eligible) for responsible posts.
(ix) He is a man of (lose, loose) character.
(x) The Emperor is staying at the royal (mansion, mention).

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb: (10)
(i) Book
(ii) Bare
(iii) Clam
(iv) Drive
(v) Face

(c) Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech: (10)
(i) He said, “I am too ill to speak now.”
(ii) The policeman said to the man, “Where are you going?”
(iii) She said to her children, “Let me work undisturbed.”
(iv) He said to the students, “Do not sit here.”
(v) He said, “May god pardon the sinner.”

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