Compulsory English Paper (Civil Services Mains) 2012

Q1. Write Essay on any one (300 words)
Indian women in international sports.
Cultivation of organic foods
Foreign Direct Investment om retail – boon or bane?
How effective are our system and institutions in dealing with disasters?
Food Security – legislation and implementation.
Q2. Reading Comprehension
Oratory demands enthusiasm, which can spring only in an earnest soul; and neither beauty of composition not graceful delivery can compensate for want of passion. To be able to interest people without tiring them in a prime test of oratory. It is a gift that me draw valuable aid from such natural advantages as a noble figure, handsome countenance, and pleasant voice,. But there has been no lack of eminent orators of ungainly mien at any time. Few have equaled Sir Robert Peel in skilful management of the House of Commons, but he often assumed very undignified postures standing with his hands behind his coat tails, or thumbs buried in the pockets of his waistcoat, and threw one leg over the other in attitudes of nonchalance. The composition of his speeches was slovenly and they were noted for the disorder of their contents, Oliver Cromwell was one of the most influential speakers of his day, but he rarely wore clean linen and his voice was “harsh and untuneable.”

The indispensable requisite of oratory is a mind well-stored with knowledge and information, sound reasoning, wit and humour, vehemence, fire, and imaginative insight all conducive to enhance the power of eloquence; but the same speakers are not able to make the same impression in all places, not secure the same effect at all times. The pinnacle of triumph of oratory is reached when a speaker is able to magnetise his hearers into thinking as he thinks, and feeling as he feels. When Sheridan has concluded his famous speech in Parliament on the “Begum Charge”, so great was the excitement caused by it that the Minister concerned besought the House of adjourn the decision of the question, “as being incapacitated from forming a just judgement under the influence of such powerful eloquence.”

It is clear that there is a rivalry between the orator and the occasion and the dazzling effect of the moment does not always endure later cool reflection.

The world moves in continual cycle of action and reaction, and the homage paid to speakers is followed by tests in the course of which there is unrelenting research as to what extent precept and example tally. When there is no wide gulf between the two, further speeches are listened to with increased respect.

Answer following questions
What are the most important qualities required for becoming a good orator?
What was the effect created by Sheridan’s speech?
How can you judge the true effect of a good oration?
What research does the audience do when they listen to speakers?
Q3: Precise writing
Make a precis of the following passage in about 200 words, It is not necessary to suggest a title. Failure to write within the world limit may result in deduction of marks. The precis must be written on the separate precis sheets provided, which must then be fastened securely inside the answer-book.

Taking into account the compelling and inescapable reality of an increasingly resource constrained world, India needs to link the aspirations of the people and its prospects for accelerated growth to what I would call a “resource-frugal” instead of a “resource-intensive” strategy of development. I believe that such a strategy would enable India to sustain a high rate of growth over a more extended period of time, delivering affluence without waste, and current welfare without sacrificing the welfare of future generations. I will touch upon just a few illustrative examples.

The notion of frugality is current in some sectors of our economy and has been successful enough to attract international attention. “Frugal manufacture” is already acclaimed as Indian industry’s contribution to innovate production processes, This involved the stripping down of complex machinery or devices, to their most essential applications without frills. An example is the cost-effective, easy to use, hand-held ECG machine, which is a major contribution to public health. The other is the use of the mobile telephone to deliver information, services as well as funds on a low-cost and widely spread platform. Even in agriculture, there have been significant successes in promoting production process which are dramatically economical in the use of water, dispence with the use of costly and still deliver high agricultural output, ensuring food security. this is frugal agriculture. What should be appreciated is the these innovations, by making products affordable, lead to significant market expansion, This in turn economies of scale, further lowering of cost and generating even greater demand in a virtuous, self-reinforcing circle.

The hallmark of any modern society is its ability to deliver rapid affordable and efficient means of mobility to its people. Enabling people to exercise their right to mobility is a critical state responsibility. However, mobility is linked to the use of energy and the use of scarce land, both of which are in short supply in our country. It follows, therefore, that we must have a transport strategy that ensures the most economical use of these resources. The continued expansion of private vehicular transportation is not sustainable. If the density of private car ownership in India were to approach U.S. or European levels, we would be using liquid fuels far in excess of the total consumption of all such fuels globally today. Just as the space required for parking a billion cars and constructing highways for them to run on, would occupy land on a scale that would leave little space for any other activity. Therefore, shifting resources from private transportation to public transportation and investing in the latter to make them convenient, comfortable and cost-effective is another essential component of a “resource-frugal” strategy. Greater mobility ensures a more productive population and a more efficient distribution of goods and services. This is what can ensure a sustained and high rate of growth.

If frugal process is what India is good at, it can add value to each of the sectors of its economy by leveraging its proven strength in information and communications technology. The system which make modern economics run whether these are the power supply networks, the transportation system, the distribution of goods and services, the water supply system, to name only a few are being transformed through the use of modern data analytics. The placement of sensors at critical points in any economic process, generated massive and continuous mass of real time data, which high powered computers, using sophisticated software can analyse in considerable detail and propose what are called “smart” solutions. This reduces waste to the minimum, eliminates redundancies in processes and improves efficiencies all around. This, too, is an example of “resource frugality”. It is India which can provide the biggest market for such as a multiplier across the board in a range of sectors in the Indian economy. What is important to appreciate here is that such services are really the hallmark of a flat world because they can ass value in developing societies as they can in advanced ones.

The purpose of providing these examples is to ass some substance to the overall optimism I retain about our future as a plural, democratic and innovative society, despite the seeming gloom around us.

What is more, each of these innovations enable inclusive growth, because they empower the poor; they profit from leveraging the power of numbers. What we need is to upscale these successes from the margin to the mainstream, from the local to the national level.

Q4. Sentence Correction and fill in the blanks
Sentence correction
The vehicular pollution causes serious harm to human beings.
Both Ashish and Smita came late to college today.
There is many problems relating to this matter.
Not only David passed but got a distinction.
We’d like some information about the types of cars available.
I prefer to pay by cash.
My uncle has proposed me a job in his company.
All of a sudden she burst in tears.
I enjoy this type of music still now.
The teacher said me to submit the assignment the next day.
Rewrite the following sentences inserting suitable article(s), wherever necessary:
Oranges and lemons are citrus fruits,
Aijaz is tallest boy in class.
She teaches at University in Indiana but I don’t know which one it is.
New teacher seems to be very strict.
It was beautiful sight to see.
Rewrite the following sentences inserting suitable prepositions in the blank spaces:
The Minister gave ____________ the prizes on the annual day.
Seeing the children playing brought ____________ memories of my childhood games.
Randhir is always ready to take ____________ any responsibility.
The members decided to deal ____________ the problem collectively.
I hope the picnic will not be called ____________.
Give the antonyms of the following words:
Q5. Do as Directed
(a): Rewrite the following sentences using the passive structure.
They have permitted me to leave.
The rains have completely ruined the roads.
Why did you close the door.
History records his great achievements.
They awarded her the degree at the Convocation.
(b): Change the following sentences into indirect speech:
Anil to Ajay : “Why don’t you join us for a party on Saturday?”
Mrs Nair to Mr Shah : “Good Morning! There’s a small problem I want to speak to you about.”
Jack to Parimala : “How was your trip to the National Park?”
Mr Patil to the Cashier : “Do you have change for five hundreds rupees?”
Susil to Prasad : “Congratulations! I’m so glad you received the young scientists award.”
(c) : Use the correct form of the verb in brackets to fill in the blanks:
The first such prize ____________ in 1199. (AWARD)
The computer is a complex gadget and ____________ of many parts. (CONSIST)
Jacob ____________ his report already. (COMPLETE)
The postman ____________ his bag and left. (COLLECT)
(d) : Supply the missing words:
The music was too loud ____________ she adjusted the volume.
____________ the technician worked for an hour he was unable to repair the machine.
____________ you pay attention you are likely to miss the important points.
Raju calls his mother ____________ he finds it difficult to manage on his own.
Leave a wide margin ____________ the tutor’s comments can be written in it.
(e) : Rewrite the following sentences using ‘It’ in the beginning as a preparatory subject:
Finding fault with someone is easy.
For them to close down the family business would be right.
To clean your car yourself would be a good idea.
To eat alone was embarrassing for her.
Shouting out to someone across the room is rude.

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