IAS Mains History 1981
1. Mark any fifteen of the following on the map supplied to you and give descriptive notes on them:
2. Bring out the elements of change and continuity in the domestic and foreign policies of
3. How far do the coins of the Gupta’s provide clues regarding trends in economy, polity, religion and
arts? Discuss them in the light of corroborating evidence from archaeology and literature
4. Discuss critically the main aspects of polity and society under the Pallavas?
5. Write short answers of not more than 200 words each for any three of the following questions:
(i) How did Sankaracharya seek to integrate the different religions cults in India ?
(ii) What were the aims of Alauddin Khalji behind his market regulations, and how far were they
(iii) Examine the major contributions of the Sur rulers to the administrative system.
(iv) Why did the Marathas fail in establishing a lasting empire in India?
6. Examine the factors which were responsible for opening and development of European trade in-India
during the 16th and 17th centuries.
7. Explain with illustrative detail the part played by the following factors in the disintegration of the
(a) Aurangzeb’s alleged departure from the policies of his predecessors,
(b) Inherent defects of the Mansab and Jagir system. and
(c) Growth of new political forces in the provinces.
8. Identify the traces of Persian and Rajput traditions and show how they were synthesized
in the field of painting, architecture and literature at the Mughal court.
Section A (Modern India)
1. Write critical notes on any three of the following in about 200 words each:
(a) Consequences of the ruin of handicraft industries under the rule of the East India Company.
(b) Impact of western contact on social changes half of 19th century in the first
(c) Significance of the Swadeshi Movement 1905-07 in the freedom struggle.
(d) Gandhiji’s role in solving the communal problem.
2. Trace the circumstances that led to the introduction of the Permanent Settlement in Bengal. Discuss
its impact on landlords, peasants and the Government.
3. Give a brief account of the industrial and agricultural policy of the Government of India between
1858 and 1914. How far is it correct to say that it was more in the interest of British capital than the
4. Assess the role of the Left Wing within the Indian National Congress between 1920 and 1947.
Section B (Modern World)
5. Write critical notes on any threes of the following in about 200 words each:
(a) Theory of ‘The New imperialism’ after 1870.
(b) Effect of British liberalism on the social or economic life of the people of England.
(c) Lenin’s role in the Russian Revolution of 1917.
(d) Importance of the Opium War in the history of China.
6. Give a critical account of the progress of merchantalism in the 17th century. How far is it correct to
say that it paved the way for the Industrial Revolution?
7. ‘Napoleon kindled the national sentiment but German unity was achieved by Bismarck.’ Discuss.
8. What was the culture system in the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) during the 19th century? Why
was it dismantled?