Mains History Paper 1996

 IAS Mains History 1996


Section A

1. Write short essays of not more than 200 word each on any three of the following topics:

(a) The Religion of the Indus Civilization

(b) Social and economic conditions of North India during the Pre-Mauryan period (600-325 B.C.)

(c) Mauryan municipal administration

(d) Factors that led to the Rise and Fall of the Gupta Empire

2. “Of all the events that had a singular being on the history of India, Harsha’s death in 647 A.D. is significant.” Why? Explain.

3. “Ancient Indians had no taste for historiography; their scholars cared more for religious, spiritual and philosophical studies. Indian historiography is essentially an Islamic heritage “Comment upon this statement with special reference to the contemporary writers and their works which help us in the reconstruction of history of the early medieval period of Indian history.

4. Give a account of the Society in Northern and Central India since the death of Harsha to the Muslim conquest of North India.

Section B

5. Mark and fifteen of the following places on the map supplied to you and write brief notes on the places marked on the map:
(i) Ajmer
(ii) Attock
(iii) Benares
(iv) Bhatner
(v) Champaner
(vi) Cutch
(vii) Daulatabad
(viii) Delhi
(ix) Devagiri
(x) Diu
(xi) Ellichpur
(xii) Ellora
(xiii) Ghazni
(xiv) Ghor
(xv) Gwalior
(xvi) Hampi
(xvii) Hissar
(xviii) Jodhpur
(xix) Kabul
(xx) Katni
(xxi) Khyber Pass
(xxii) Lahore
(xxiii) Peshawar
(xxiv) Rameshwaram
(xxv) Ranthambore
(xxvi) Sialkot
(xxvii) Thaneswar
(xxviii) Thatta
(xxix) Uttaramerur
(xxx) Warangal

6. Give an estimate of Ghiasuddin Balban.

7. Assess the importance of the Cholas in the history of South India.

8. Shivaji’s rise to power cannot be treated as an isolated phenomenon in Maratha history. It was as much the result of his personal daring and heroism as of the peculiar geographical situation of the Deccan country and the unifying religious influences that were animating the people with new hopes and aspirations in the 15th and 16th centuries. Explain.


Section A

1. Comment on any three of the following statements in about 200 words each:

(a) “The verdict of Plessey was confirmed by the English victory at Buxar.”

(b) The British policy towards Indian States in 1818-1858 was one of “isolation and non-interference tempered by annexation.”

(c) “The religious reform movements of the 19th century were “endeavours to recast the old religion (Hinduism) into a new form suited to meet the needs of the new society.”

(d) “India after 1905 had new interests and objectives and compelled new lines of policy.”

2. The changing life in Indian village marked best the impact of the British administration on the Indian people. Explain, identifying the process and the extent of the change.

3. Trace the course of the people’s movement in Indian States after 1937. How did the Congress leadership react to it?

4. The Pakistan movement converted a cultural and religious entity of a people into a separatist political force. Elucidate.

Section B

5. Comment on any three of the following statements in about 200 words each: –

(a) “The era of discovery and exploration was but another aspect of the Renaissance interest in the world and man.”

(b) The Industrial Revolution “changed England in character and culture.”

(c) “The Communist international and the League of Nations both announced the end of then Balance of Power.”

(d) The Great Depression (1929-34) was “attended by momentous consequences in the economic as well as in the political sphere.”

6. The French Revolution (1789) sought to remove both “the religious and secular props of the existing social order.” Elucidate.

7. Trace the stages in the partition of Africa after 1870. How did it affect international relations?

8. Turkish renaissance guided by Kemal Pasha revolutionized the Turkish life a many levels. Amplify.

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