(Prelims) IAS General Studies Solved Paper With Explanations – 2011 (Part- 2)

(Prelims) IAS General Studies – 2011 (Part 2)

11. Among the following states, which one has the most suitable climatic conditions for the cultivation of a large variety of orchids with minimum cost of production, and can develop an export oriented industry in this field ?

(a) Andhra Pradesh.

(b) Arunachal Pradesh.

(c)Madhya Pradesh.

(d)Uttar Pradesh.

Ans: b

  • Orchids are considered as the most beautiful flowering plants for the exquisite beauty of the flowers, variety of fragrance, brilliance in colour, unusual shapes, variation in form and attractive growth habits.
  • To produce beautiful, long-lasting blooms, orchids must produce energy in the form of carbohydrates during the day when the temperature is high and store that energy at night when the temperature drops. This temperature fluctuation is necessary for orchids to bloom. Without a day-night fluctuation of 10-15 degrees Fahrenheit, the plants will grow plenty of healthy foliage but may stubbornly refuse to flower. A night temperature of 60-62 degrees F is ideal for optimum growth, but temperatures as low as 55 degrees F will not harm. Daytime temperatures should range between 70 and 80 degrees F.
  • Temperature, light and humidity work in conjunction with one another, and unless a harmonious relationship is achieved between them, optimum growth is not possible. In instances of low humidity, high temperatures can be dangerous; in the case of too much atmospheric moisture, the effects of low temperatures can be over-emphasized.
  • Majority of the cultivated orchids are native of tropical climates and are found in abundance in India in the state of Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal, West Bengal, Karnataka and Kerala. Kalimpong, Shillong, Trivandrum, Bangalore , Yercaud and almost all the coastal areas of India are the places most suitable for the for the cultivation of orchids.

12. Which one of the following is not a site for in-situ method of conservation of flora ?

(a)Biosphere reserve.

(b)Botanical garden.

(c)National park.

(d)Wildlife sanctuary.

Answer: b

  • Zoos and botanical gardens are the conventional methods of ex-situ conservation.

13.Consider the following statements :

In India, a metropolitan planning committee :

1.Is constituted under the provisions of the constitution of India.

2.Prepares the draft development plans for metropolitan area.

3.Has the sole responsibility for implementing government sponsored schemes in the metropolitan area.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a)1 and 2 only.

(b)2 only.

(c)1,3 only.

(d)1,2 and 3.

Answer: a

Article 243ZE: Committee for Metropolitan Planning

(I) There shall be constituted in every Metropolitan area a Metropolitan Planning Committee to prepare a draft development plan for the Metropolitan area as a whole.

(2) The Legislature of a State may, by law, make provision with respect to-

(a) the composition of the Metropolitan Planning Committees;

(b) the manner in which the seats in such Committees shall be filled:

Provided that not less than two-thirds of the members of such Committee shall be elected by, and from amongst, the elected members of the Municipalities and Chairpersons of the Panchayats in the Metropolitan area in proportion to the ratio between the population of the Municipalities and of the Panchayats in that area;

(c) the representation in such Committees of the Government of India and the Government of the State and of such organisations and institutions as may be deemed necessary for carrying out the functions assigned to such Committees;

(d) the functions relating to planning and coordination for the Metropolitan area which may be assigned to such Committees;

(e) the manner in which the Chairpersons of such Committees shall be chosen.

(3) Every Metropolitan Planning Committee shall, in preparing the draft development plan,-

(a) have regard to-

 (i) the plans prepared by the Municipalities and the Panchayats in the Metropolitan area;

 (ii) matters of common interest between the Municipalities and the Panchayats, including coordinated spatial planning of the area, sharing of water and other physical and natural resources, the integrated development of infrastructure and environmental conservation;

 (iii) the overall objectives and priorities set by the Government of India and the Government of the State;

 (iv) the extent and nature of investments likely to be made in the Metropolitan area by agencies of the Government of India and of the Government of the State and other available resources whether financial or otherwise;

(b) consult such institutions and organisations as the Governor may, by order, specify.

 (4) The Chairperson of every Metropolitan Planning Committee shall forward the development plan, as recommended by such Committee, to the Government of the State.

14.What is the difference between “vote-on-account” and interim budget ?

1.The provision of a “vote-on-account’’ is used by a regular government, while an ”interim budget’’ is a provision used by a caretaker government.

2.A “vote-on-account’’ only deals with the expenditure in government is budget, while an “interim budget’’ includes both expenditure and receipts.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a)1 only.

(b)2 only.

(c)Both 1 and 2.

(d)Neither 1 nor2.


  • A vote-on account is basically a statement ,where the government presents an estimate of a sum required to meet the expenditure that it incurs during the first three to four months of an election financial year until a new government is in place, to keep the machinery running.
  • Difference between Vote on Account and Interim Budget: Vote-on-account deals only with the expenditure side of the government’s budget, an interim Budget is a complete set of accounts, including both expenditure and receipts.
  • A national interim Budget refers to the budget of a government that is going through a transition period. These budgets are common in democracies where one political party or a coalition is voted out and another political party or a coalition is voted into office. The two governments often have different fiscal plans, so the old government budget is cut short and a new budget is created. The interim Budget helps span the transition time between the two governments so that the government can continue to function. Interim Budget is a temporary budget as its name suggests, passed by the departing government.
  • Caretaker Government is the government which is ready to go, does not present the Interim Budget, as it does not have majority.

15. Regarding the international monetary fund, which one of the following statements is correct ?

(a) It can grant to any country.

(b) It can grant loans to only developed countries.

(c) It grants loans to only member countries.

(d) It can grant loans to the central bank of a country.

Answer: c

16. In the union budget 2011-12, a full exemption from the basic customs duty was extended to the bio-based asphalt (biosphalt). What is the importance of this material ?

1. Unlike traditional asphalt, bio-asphalt is not based on fossil fuels.

2. Biosphalt can be made from non-renewable resources.

3. Bioasphalt can be made from organic waste materials.

4. It is eco-friendly to use bioasphalt for surfacing of the roads.

Which the correct answer using the codes given below ?

(a) 1,2,and 3 only.

(b) 1,3 and 4 only.

(c) 2 and 4 only.

(d) 1,2,3, and 4.

Answer: b

  • Bioasphalt is an asphalt alternative made from non-petroleum based renewable resources. (Asphalt or bitumen is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.) These sources include sugar, molasses and rice, corn and potato starches, natural tree and gum resins, natural latex rubber and vegetable oils, lignin, cellulose, palm oil waste, coconut waste, peanut oil waste, canola oil waste, dried sewerage effluent and so on.
  • Because of concerns over Peak oil, pollution and climate change, as well the oil price increases since 2003, non-petroleum alternatives have become more popular. This has led to the introduction of biobitumen alternatives that are more environmentally friendly and nontoxic.

17. Consider the following :

1. Carbon dioxide.

2. Oxides of nitrogen.

3. Oxides of Sulphur

Which of the above is/are the emission/emissions from coal combustion at thermal power plants ?

(a) 1 only.

(b) 2 and 3 only.

(c) 1 and 3 only.

(d) 1,2,and 3

Ans: d

  • Coal fired thermal power plants are one of the main contributors for atmospheric pollution and greenhouse gases. Emissions that come from these plants could be categorized into three different categories:

    • Gaseous emissions Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Sulphur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide which lead to global warming and acid rain.
    • Particulate emissions – this fine dust that is emanated from the stacks of power plants is a health hazard.
    • Trace elements like Mercury, Cadmium and Lead which are also health hazards.
  • These emissions are formed due to the Combustion process when coal is burned to produce heat. Some are avoidable, some can be controlled or reduced, some cannot be avoided.

18. Satellites used for telecommunication relay are kept in a geostationary orbit. A satellite is said to be in such as orbit when :

1. The orbit is geosynchronous.

2. The orbit is circular.

3. The orbit lies in the plane of the earth’s equator.

4. The orbit is at an altitude of 22,236.

Which the correct answer using the codes given below :

(a) 1,2,and 3 only.

(b) 1,3 and 4 only.

(c) 2 and 4 only.

(d) 1,2,3, and 4.

Answer: a

  • Geostationary satellites seems to be stationary from earth but their angular velocity is same as that of earth.
  • A geosynchronous orbit means that the orbit period of the satellite is the same time period of the sidereal rotation period of the Earth. There is difference between the geostationary and geosynchronous orbits. A satellite may have a period of revolution is equal to period of rotation of earth, but its orbit is neither equatorial nor Circular. S, it does not appear stationary from the earth. It oscillates. There is only one geostationary orbit (just above equatorial) but there may be many geosynchronous orbit. (not exactly above equatorial but not too far)
  • A Geostationary orbit is a geosynchronous orbit that is circular and at zero inclination, that is, directly above the equator. The height is 22236 miles or 35,786 Kilometres.

19.India has experienced persistent and high food inflation in the recent past. What could be the reasons ?

1.Due to a gradual switchover to the cultivation of commercial crops, the area under the cultivation of food grains has steadily decreased in the last five years by about 30%.

2.As a consequence of increasing incomes, the consumption patterns of the people have undergone a significant change.

3.The food supply chain has structural constraints.

Which of the statements given above are correct ?

(a)1 and 2 only.

(b)2 and 3 only.

(c)1 and 3 only.

(d)1,2, and 3.

Answer: b

  • According to the statement of RBI: Notwithstanding some moderation, food price inflation has remained persistently elevated for over a year now, reflecting in part the structural demand-supply mismatches in several commodities. The trend of food inflation was pointing at not only structural demand-supply mismatches in commodities comprises the essential consumption basket but also at changing consumption patterns.

20. At present , scientists can determine the arrangement or relative positions of genes or DNA sequences on a chromosome. How does this knowledge benefit us ?

1. It is possible to know the pedigree of livestock.

2. It is possible to understand the causes of all human diseases.

3. It is possible to develop disease-resistant animal breeds.

Which of the statements give above is/are correct ?

(a) 1 and 2 only.

(b) 2 only.

(c) 1 and 3 only.

(d) 1,2, and 3 .

Answer: d

  • The Human Genome Project (HGP) is an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and functional standpoint. It remains the world’s largest collaborative biological project.The project was proposed and funded by the US government; planning started in 1984, the project got underway in 1990, and was declared complete in 2003. The “genome” of any given individual is unique; mapping “the human genome” involves sequencing multiple variations of each gene.[4] The project did not study the entire DNA found in human cells; some heterochromatic areas (about 10% of the total genome) remain unsequenced.
  • The Human Genome Project, through its sequencing of the DNA, can help us understand diseases including: genotyping of specific viruses to direct appropriate treatment; identification of oncogenes and mutations linked to different forms of cancer; the design of medication and more accurate prediction of their effects; advancement in forensic applied sciences; biofuels and other energy applications; agriculture, livestock breeding, bioprocessing; risk assessment; bioarcheology, anthropology, evolution. Another proposed benefit is the commercial development of genomics research related to DNA based products, a multibillion dollar industry.
  • Human Genome Project is not at all limited to only genetic diseases. There are some 30K genes and the genome sequence would provide great help to build the tools to conquer diseases. All diseases have a genetic component, whether inherited ( genetic) or resulting from the body’s response to environmental stresses like viruses or toxins. The successes of the HGP have even enabled researchers to pinpoint errors in genes–the smallest units of heredity–that cause or contribute to disease.

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