Answers of DPPH- 12 February

Objective Solutions:

1. Diversity of subsistence base of Harappan people included:

i. Agriculture

ii. Animal husbandry

iii. Hunting and fishing

iv. Fishing and exploitation of riverine and marine resources

Correct statements are:

a. i and ii

b. i and iii

c. ii, iii and iv

d. All

Ans: d

2. Consider the following statements regarding the continuity of the Indus Civilization into later ages:

i. The beginning of the system of binary and decimal and other measurements and weights which were used by the Harappans have continued into later India

ii. The symbol like ”Swastik” which is religiously important now has not been found on the Harappan seals.

iii. Separate bathing areas and toilets have been found in many houses of the Harappan civilization. This can be seen in the countryside till now.

iv. Discovery of fire altars in many Harappan sites gives indication towards fire cult. Later fire came to occupy a very important position in Hindu way of worship.

Correct statements are:

a. All

b. i, ii and iii

c. i, iii and iv

d. i, ii and iv

Ans: c

3. Which of the following burial types have been found in Harrapan sites:

i. Extended burial

ii. Urn Burial

iii. Symbolic burial

iv. Fractional burial

Correct options are:

a. i, ii and iii

b. i, iii and iv

c. ii, iii and iv

d. All

Ans: d

4. Match the following:

LIST-I                       LIST-II

A. Dayaram Sahni    i. Lothal

B. R. D. Benerjee    ii Harappan

C. S. R. Rao              iii. Mohenjodaro

D. J. P. Joshi            iv. Dholavira

A  B  C  D

a. i  ii  iii  iv

b. ii  iii  iv  i

c. ii  i  iii  iv

d. ii iii  i  iv

Ans: d

5. The Harapan people knew the use of

a. Gold, silver, copper, bronze but not iron

b. Copper, iron, silver but not bronze

c. Silver, lead, Copper but not gold

d. Gold, tin, bronze but not copper

Ans: a

6. Which of the following is incorrect regarding water management and its conservation planning in the Harappan cities:

a. The main drains were uncovered.

b. In many sites, the drains for collecting rainwater were separate from the sewage chutes and pipes.

c. In the city of Mohenjodaro, most houses or house blocks had at least one private well.

d. In the city of Dholavira, several large, deep water cisterns and reservoirs have been found which preserved precious stores of rain water.

Ans: a

7. Which of the following statements are incorrect:

a. The script of the Harappan people consisted of A family of quasi – pictographic writings.

b. Archaeological excavations have revealed remains of stadium in Dholavira.

c. Funerary practices mentioned in Rig Veda are both cremation and burial.

d. Four fold Varna system is a feature of early Vedic Text.

Ans: d

8. Consider the following statements:

A. Satyamev Jayete is a Sanskrit phrase found in the Mundaka Upanishad

B. Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam is a Sanskrit phrase found in the Maha Upanishad.

a. Both A and B are correct

b. Only A is correct

c. Only B is correct

d. None is correct

Ans: a

9. The secular knowledge contained in the Puranas are:

i. The conception of time

ii. Political History

iii. Historical geography

iv Knowledge about astronomy, grammar, medicine, politics.

Choose the correct option:

a. ii and iv

b. i, ii and iv

c. ii, iii and iv

d. All

Ans: d

10. Rig Veda reflects a naturalistic polytheism which means:

i. A belief in many Gods who personified natural phenomenon.

ii. Worship of images of deities.

iii. Worship of many Gods in temples.

Correct statements are:

a. i and ii

b. Only  i

c. ii and iii

d. i, ii and iii

Ans: b

11.The leisure pass times mentioned in the Vedic texts are:

a. Chariot racing

b. Dicing

c. Music and dancing

d. All

Ans: d

Mains Solutions (For GS Mains and History Optional):

Q.1 Give an account of continuance of Harappan culture till now a days. (250 words)

The culture of the Indus valley Civilisation have been preserved without a breakdown to the present day and it includes all walks of life including religious and spiritual fields.

Continuity in the religious and spiritual fields

1) The Pashupati of the Harappans shows a remarkable resemblance to the Shiva of the later Hinduism traditions.

2) Worship of Pipal tree and humped bull still prevalent in the Indian society.

3) Worship of Shakambari, the Earth mother still continues in the countryside.

4) Worship of male and female creative energy in the form of stone icons of lingas and yonis continues to the present day.

5) Discovery of fire altars in Lothal and Kalibangan gives indication towards fire cult. Later fire came to occupy a very important position in Hindu way of worship.

Continuity in other fields

1) Pottery- Some of the forms and features of the pots used by the Harappans can be seen in traditional kitchens even today.

2) House Plans- People lived in houses of different sizes, mostly consisting of rooms arranged around a central courtyard, which can be seen in Indian villages even today.

3) Lost-wax method – It was used in the making of the famous ”dancing girl” of the Mohenjodaro. This technique is still used in certain parts of India.

4) Cotton – Mesopotamian texts mention cotton as one of the imports from Meluhha and traces of cotton cloth were also found at Mohenjodaro. India still continues to produce and export cotton.

5) The beginning of the system of binary and decimal and other measurements and weights which were used by the Harappans have continued into later India. For example- 1 rupee = 16 annas.

6) Garments-
a) Use of dhoti like lower garment which still continues in the countryside, and
b) An upper garment consisting of a shawl or cloak worn over one shoulder and under the other was in vogue during the historical periods. for ex- this style is visible in the images of Buddha also.

7) Use of talisman and amulets still continues in the Indian society.

8) Some of the symbols like ”Swastik”, ”Circle” etc found on the Harappan seals remains  important till this day.

9) Continuance of dice games, kajal for the eyes kept in jars with sticks, ivory combs, nose rings, bangles, rosary etc continues.

10) Cultivation of crops like wheat, barley, rice, etc continue even today.

11) Separate bathing areas and toilets have been found in many houses of the Harappan civilization. This can be seen in the countryside till now.

12)The Harappans made elaborate arrangements for water for drinking and bathing. The emphasis on providing water for bathing suggests that they were very particular about personal hygiene. This consciousness for personal hygiene can still be witnessed in the Indian society.

13)The practice of building ritual bathing tanks and taking holy bath and ablution can be traced back directly to the Harappan period.

Q.2 Examine the causes of the decline of Harappan Civilization. (250 words)

Ans:

Examining the causes of the decline of Harappan Civilization

i) Aryan invasion theory– It was put forward by Ramprasad Chanda and Mortimer Wheeler. They put forward the idea that the civilization was destroyed by Aryan invaders. However, the archaeological evidences show the absence of any such invasion and hence this theory , though most popular, is not accepted.

ii) Shereen Ratnagar has argued that the decline in the lapis lazuli trade with Mesopotamia was a factor in the decline of the Harappan civilization. But this trade was not much important for the Harappans and consequently, this could not have been a factor responsible for the decline.

iii) Natural disasters like Floods, Tectonic Movements, Shifting of the Indus as the cause of decline

  1. Historians like R.Sahni and others argued that the repeated episodes of Indus floods were responsible for the decline of the cities. They argued that the floods were result of the tectonic movements. The tectonic movements led to the creation of a gigantic dam, turning the whole area Mohenjodaro into a huge lake. However, this theory of flooding induced by tectonic movements is not convincing.
  2. Historian H.T.Lambrick’s hypothesis is that the Indus changed its course, moving eastwards, starving Mohenjodaro and its inhabitants of water. However, Lambrick himself describes it as purely circumstantial evidence.

iv) Ecological Imbalance Theory by Fairservis – Making estimates of the population, land, food, and fodder requirements on the basis of modern data, Fairservis suggests that the civilization declined because the growing population of people and cattle could not be supported from the resources within the Harappan culture zone. Of all the theories discussed so far, Fairservis’s theory seems to be the most plausible.

v) Monsoon Link Theory of 2012.It is presented by Ronojoy Adhikari and others. This theory holds the climate change responsible for the decline of the Harappan civilization.
According to this theory, around 4000 BCE there existed extreme monsoon climate which was not favourable for the rise of  civilization but with the weakening of the monsoon, the climate became favourable for the rise of the mighty harappan civilization and with the further weakening of the monsoon, the climate became again unfavourable which led to the decline of the civilization. The example of this further weakening is the disappearance of the Saraswati river which was rainfed not Glacier fed.
This theory is based on the latest archaeological evidence and research and tries to explain the decline of the Harappan civilization on the basis of the ecological degradation.

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