Solution: Daily Practise Questions for History Optional Mains 2017 (World History-31 July)

Q.1 ​Industrial Revolution first came in England. How the Industrial Revolution changed England in character and culture?

Q.2 “The Industrial Revolution put mobility in the place of stability.” Comment.

Q.3  “France was more fertile than Britain in producing new Socialist theories and movements, though they bore less concrete results in France than in Britain.” Critically Examine.


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Q.1 ​Industrial Revolution first came in England. How the Industrial Revolution changed England in character and culture?

Industrial Revolution (IR) began in 1760s as a result of agricultural revolution in Western Europe between 16th and 18th centuries. This was fueled by colonization of America and India. The Enclosure system in agriculture created landless labourers,  who could be utilized in the rising industries.
IR shifted economic center to England and economic base from agriculture to industry. Machines changed the people’s way of living and methods of manufacturing. The stable rural structure developed into a mobile urban structure. IR increased job opportunities in factories. Increased child labour resulted in many casualties. Trade unions developed for addressing the grievances of labourers in factories and mines. Housing conditions for labourers were very poor, and poor sanitation resulted in widespread disease outbreaks like cholera, typhoid, etc. Population inflow increased leading to development of cities and hence urbanization.
The traditional craftsmen could not compete with cheap industrial products, and hence turned unemployed. Along with that traditional crafts also saw demise. Women were denied employment in industries of heavy machinery, or they were paid less than men. Thus they shifted to other sectors like domestic workers, prostitution, etc. and resulted in gender inequality. The use of steam power improved printing and expanded newspaper and book publishing. This resulted in improved literacy, which showed the development of a new educated middle class.
The IR made England a world power, which continued till the emergence of other nations in this field.
Q.2 “The Industrial Revolution put mobility in the place of stability.” Comment.

IR saw a shift in economic structure from subsistence to surplus. IR first developed in England in 1760s, where the stable agrarian society shifted to a highly populated industrial one. 
The discovery of abundant coal and iron deposits in England is one of the very important reasons of IR. The new innovations and technologies replaced the cottage industries that employed skilled artisans. Spinning jenny, power looms and steam power increased the rate of production of textiles. Iron and steel finds its application in  buildings, machines, railways, ships etc. Road construction also becomes quicker. 
New infrastructure helped increasing the pace of transportation. Hence trade and other businesses also progressed. Ships facilitated the discovery of new world. New places contribute more raw materials and labour, and also acted as market places. People started rushing in to cities for better employment opportunities, which contributed to greater mobility.
IR developed mobility within and across borders. After different phases of IR and later globalization, we are left with porous borders facilitating greater mobility 



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