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Late Harappan Sites (Map for History Optional)

Late Harappan Sites

Late Harappan Sites

i. Daimabad

  • In Ahmednagar district, Maharashtra.
  • Southernmost Harappan and Late Harappan site.
  • Chalcolithic and Late Harappan phase found.
  • Multiple periods:
    • Period I:- Savalda culture
    • Period II: Late Harappan culture
    • Period III:- Daimabad Culture
    • Period IV: Malwa culture
    • Period V: Jorwe culture
  • Late Harappan:
    • Pottery:
      • Fine red ware with linear and geometric designs in black.
    • Seals with Harappan writing and inscribed potsherds.
    • Tools:
      • Microlithic blades,
      • stone and terracotta beads,
      • shell bangles,
      • gold beads,
      • terracotta measuring scale.
    • Copper smelted locally.
    • Agriculture: Millets, gram, and moong, horse gram.
  • Daimabad culture:
    • Pottery: Black-on-buff/cream ware.
    • Copper-smelting furnace found.
    • Three different types of burials
      • a pit burial,
      • urn burial, and
      • symbolic burial.
    • Agriculture: Millets, gram, and moong, horse gram, Hyacinth.
  • Except one burial belonging to the late Harappan phase, all of them were of infants and young people.

ii. Navadatoli

  • In west Nimar district, MP.
  • Chalcolithic and Late Harappan Site.
  • Navdatoli is the largest settlement of Malwa culture.
  • Habitation:
    • Circular or rectangular shape.
    • Circular wattle-and-daub houses, post holes
    • Floors plastered with lime.
    • Ancient village inhabited through four stages.
  • Chulhas and storage jars found in houses.
  • Pottery:
    • BRW, grey ware with painted
  • Domestication of animal
  • Microliths

iii. Kayatha

  • In Ujjain district, MP.
  • Chalcolithic and late Harappan site.
  • Pottery:
    • Fine, sturdy, wheel-made ware.
  • Houses:
    • Made of mud and reed with mud-plastered floors.
  • Bones of domesticated cattle and horses found.
  • No grain remains.
  • Artefacts:
    • Microliths made of locally available chalcedony.
    • Copper axes,  chisel, copper bangles etc.
    • Ornaments made of agate, steatite and carnelian beads.
    • Axes came from Ganeshwar.
  • Abrupt break in occupation at Kayatha in about 1800 BCE. Later reoccupied in Ahar/Banas culture phase.

iv. Ahar

  • On the banks of Ahar River of southeastern Rajasthan.
  • Chalcolithic and Late Harappan site.
  • Pottery:
    • BRW with linear and dotted designs.
    • Shapes:- bowls, bowls-on-stands, vases.
  • Habitation:
    • Single, double and multi-roomed rectangular, square or circular houses.
    • Houses made of stones, mud bricks, the walls being plastered with mud.
  • Subsistence pattern:
    • Cultivation- wheat and barley etc.
    • animal rearing and
    • hunting.
  •  Trade links with the Harappans.

v. Gilund

  • In Rajsamand district, Rajasthan.
  • Chalcolithic and late Harappan site.
  • Largest site of Ahar-Banas complex.

vi. Lothal

  • In Ahmedabad district, Gujarat
  • During pre harappan:  It was a small village.
  • Centre of  harbour, cotton and rice-growing and bead-making industry.
  • City divided into a citadel and a lower town.
  • The constructions were made of fire dried bricks, lime and sand mortar. The remains of the city give evidence to
  • A sophisticated drainage system.
  • Important findings:
    • Dockyard,
    • Persian Gulf Seals,
    • Shell ornaments maker’s shop,
    • Bead maker’s shop,
    • Metal worker’s shop,
    • Fire altars,
    • terracotta figurine of house,
    • warehouse,
    • merchant house,
    • impression of cloth on some of the sealing,
    • twelve bathrooms in the citadel area.
    • An ivory scale:- smallest-known decimal divisions in Indus civilisation.
  • connected to other cities through river route.
  • A coastal trade route had existed linking sites such as Lothal and Dholavira to Sutkagan Dor on the Makran coast.

Later Harappan culture:

  • Continued to be inhabited,
  • Much smaller population
  • Devoid of urban influences.
  • Trade and resources of the city were almost gone,
  • The people retained several Harappan ways in writing, pottery and utensils.

vii. Rangpur

  • On Saurashtra peninsula, Gujarat.
  • Mature and late Harappan phase.
  • Also post-Harappan site.
  • Acacia wood used in construction.
  • Artefacts:
    • Dishes
    • BRW and high-necked jars.
    • Evidence of shell working
    • Plant remains:- Bajra, rice and Millet were found.

viii. Rojdi

  • In Rajkot district, Gujarat.
  • Mature Harappan, Late Harappan, and Palaeolithic site.
  • Houses:
    • Built on stone foundations.
    • No bricks were found.
  • Pottery:
    • Hard, red-ware.
  • Graffiti and Script:
    • Graffiti with signs from the Indus script, such as jar sign.
    • A short Harappan inscription on pots.
  • Copper or bronze flat axes were found.

ix. Bet Dwarka

  • In Gujarat.
  • Remains of a submerged port-city, including fortification walls and stone anchors, perhaps going back to c. 1500 BCE.
  • late Harappan seal with Harappan writing.
  • A three-headed animal motif similar to that found on certain Persian Gulf seals which suggests continuation of trade with Persian Gulf.
  • Elements of Harappan urbanism:
    • cities, script, seals, specialized crafts, and long-distance trade declined in the late Harappan phase, but did not completely disappear. Some of the late Harappan sites such as Bet Dwarka can be described as urban.

x. Desalpur

  • In Kutch district, Gujarat.

  • A small mature Harappan and late Harappan phase. No early Harappan phase.
  • very large fortification:- constructed of stones with mud filling inside.

  • BRW pottery.
  • The occupation continued during post-Harappan period.

(xvi) Chanhudaro

  • In Sindh, Pakistan.
  • A small Harappan site.
  • A Mature and Late Harappan only.
  • No fortification.
  • Mud-brick platforms.
  • Streets covered drains made of burnt bricks.
  • Pottery kilns.
  • Centre of craft activity:
    • Carnelian, agate, amethyst, and crystal as well as finished and unfinished beads.
    • A bead factory, mostly made of steatite.
    • Seal making, shell working, and the making of stone weights.

xi. Amri

  • (Less imp Late Harappan site. It is mainly pre-Harappan and Harappan Site)
  • In Sindh, Pakistan on the bank of the Indus.
  • Early Harappan, mature Harappan.
  • Mud-brick, stone structures.
  • Artefacts:
    • chert blades, stone balls,
    • bone tools,
    • fragments of copper and bronze.
  • Cellular compartments used for storing grain.
  • Pottery:
    • Wheel-made wares
    • painted designs, mostly geometric.
    • monochrome or polychrome.

xii. Chanhudaro

  • In Sindh, Pakistan.
  • A small Harappan site.
  • A Mature and Late Harappan only.
  • No fortification.
  • Mud-brick platforms.
  • Streets covered drains made of burnt bricks.
  • Pottery kilns.
  • Centre of craft activity:
    • Carnelian, agate, amethyst, and crystal as well as finished and unfinished beads.
    • A bead factory, mostly made of steatite.
    • Seal making, shell working, and the making of stone weights.

xiii. Jhukar

  • In Sindh, Pakistan.
  • Regional form of late Harappan culture.
  • Pottery shows some continuity with mature Harappan.
  • Urban feature disappeared.
  • Artefacts:
    • Stone weight and female figurines became rare.
    • Circular stamp seal with geometry design but no indus script.
    • Decline in long distance trade.

xiv. Kudwaha

  • (Not so imp.)

xv. Mitathal

  • In Bhiwani district, Haryana.
  • Village type late Harappan site.
  • House of mud brick and kitchen found with chulha.
  • Coins of Kushana

xvi. Alamgirpur

  • In Saharanpur district, UP.
  • Easternmost Harappan site
  • Mature and Late Harappan site.
  • No early Harappan level.
  • Burnt bricks, copper objects found in late Harappan period.
  • PGW preceded by a late Harappan level.
  • Break in occupation between Late Harappan and PGW.

xvii. Bhagwanpura

  • In Kurukshetra district, Haryana.
  • Late Harappan phase shows craft activity:- clay tablets and sherds with graffiti.
  • Overlap between the late Harappan and PGW.
  • A large, 13-room house made of baked bricks.
  • Artefacts- stone, bone, and terracotta.
  • No evidence of iron artefacts.

xviii. Ropar

  • In Rupnagar district, Punjab.
  • IVCPGW and NBPW.
  • No early Harappan level.
  • Transition from village to town in period c. 600–200 BCE, and yielded NBPW and punch-marked and copper coins.
  • A seal with an inscription in Brahmi.
  • Houses made of stone, mud-brick and burnt brick.
  • Iron workshop and agate beads in NBPW.

xix. Harappa

  • In Punjab, Pakistan on bank of Ravi River.
  • Early, mature and late Harappan phase found.
  • First site of IVC to be discovered.
  • Urban culture sustained by surplus agricultural production and commerce.
  • Trade with Sumer in southern Mesopotamia.
  • Differentiated living quarters, flat-roofed brick houses, and fortified administrative or religious centers.
  • City followed grid planning.
  • Row of six granaries found.
  • Burials:
    • Only place having evidenced of coffin burial.
    • Evidenced of fractional burial and coffin burial.
    • Grave goods
    • Cemetery-H of alien people.
  • Citadel and fortified city.
  • Seal, stone figurines (torso of naked male and female figure in dancing pose)
  • Bronze smelting

xx. Gumla

  • Located in Gomal valley, Pakistan.
  • At Kot Diji and Gumla, a burnt deposit between early Harappan and mature Harappan levels suggests a major fire.
  • Agriculture flourished.

xxi. Mundigak

  • In Kandhar province, Afghanistan.
  • Neolithic, chalcolithic, Harappan site.
  • Painted pottery– scared fig leaves, tiger like animal etc.
  • Hump bulls, Human figurine, shaft hole axes, terracotta drains etc. found.
  • Harappan period:
    • Palace, temple, city wall.

xxii. Akhnoor / Manda

  • In Akhnoor district, J&K on the bank of Chenab.
  • Mature and Late Harappan.
  • Northern most Harappan site.
  • Harappan and Late Harappan site.
  • BRW, red ware and grey ware.
  • Artefacts:
    • Bangles,
    • potshards with Harappan writings and
    • bone arrow heads.
  • Artefacts of Kushana period:- Pottery, terracotta figurines, bone arrow heads, iron daggers and copper rods.
  • Source of timber for IVC sites.
  • Akhnoor fort built by Raja Alam Singh in 1802.

 

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