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Map Based Questions with Solution- 2019 History Optional Mains Examination

Q.1 Identify the following places marked on the map supplied to you and write a short note of about 30 words on each of them in your Question-cum-Answer Booklet. Locational hints for each of the places marked on the map are given below seriatim. [50 Marks]

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(i) Brick temple site

(ii) Early Harappan site

(iii) Ancient seaport and trade centre

(iv) Stone age site

(v) Neolithic site

(vi) Archaeological site

(vii) Ancient capital city

(viii) Ancient capital 

(ix) Harappan site

(x) Ancient inscriptions site

(xi) A Rock-cut cave site

(xii) Ancient capital city

(xiii) Famous temple site

(xiv) Centre of School of art

(xv) Ancient inscriptional site

(xvi) Ancient education centre

(xvii) pre-Harappan site

(xviii) Chalcolithic period site

(xix) Early inscriptional site

(xx) Ancient petroglyphs site

Solution

(i) Brick temple site

Bhitargaon

  • In Kanpur district, UP.
  • A terraced brick building fronted with a terracotta panel.
  • Built in the 5th century during the Gupta period.
  • Oldest remaining brick/terracotta Hindu shrine with a roof and a high Shikhara, though its upper chamber did sustain some damage in the 18th century.
  • Built on a square plan with double-recessed corners and faces east.
  • There tall pyramidal spire over the garbhagriha.
  • The walls are decorated with terracotta panels depicting aquatic monsters, Shiva and Vishnu etc.

(ii) Early Harappan site

Banawali

  • In Hissar district, Haryana, near Rangoi river
  • Early, mature, and late Harappan phases.
  • Mud-brick, burnt brick houses with hearths
  • Storage pits in the courtyards
  • A wall divided the fortified area into two sections—
    • a higher citadel area and
    • a lower town.
  • Burnt bricks used for wells, bathing pavements, and drains.
  • A multi-roomed house:- may belong to a wealthy merchant.
  • Fire altars
  • Artefacts:
    • Stone weights,
    • Terracotta ploughs,
    • Female figurines—may be of religious significance.
    • Beads of gold, lapis lazuli, and carnelian, tiny weights
  • City life ended all of a sudden in late Harappan period, there is evidence of mud houses and a rich range of artefacts.

(iii) Ancient seaport and trade centre

Muziris

  • In Cranganore, Kerala.
  • Ancient port in the Chera kingdom in Sangam Age.
  • Trade with Arabia, Rome, Greece etc.
  • Sangam literature, Greek & Roman writers like Pliny, Periplus mention Muziris.
  • Export:
    • Spices, semi-precious stones, pearls, diamonds, sapphires, ivory, tortoise shells etc.
  • Import:
    • Romans gold coins, figured linens, copper, tin, lead, coral, raw glass, wine etc.
  • Muziris Heritage Project started by Kerala government.

(iv) Stone age site

Chopani Mando

  • In Allahabad district of Uttar Pradesh.
  • All the three stages of the Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic stage found.
  • Paleolithic period:
    • Stone tools made from chert.
    • Bones discovered included those of wild cattle, sheep, and goats.
    • Represents early stage of animal domestication.
  • Mesolithic period:
    • Geometric and non-geometric microliths such as blades, points, scrapers mostly made of chert.
    • Handmade pottery, hammer stones and ring stones found.
    • Bones of wild cattle and sheep/goats.
    • Pieces of burnt clay with reed impressions showed that people lived in wattle-and-daub huts.
    • Wild rice is reported.

(v) Neolithic site

Burzahom

  • In northeast of Srinagar, J&K.
  • First Neolithic site of Kashmir.
  • Megalithic culture followed Neolithic culture.
  • Certain features differentiate it from other Neolithic cultures:
    • For example: people were not acquainted with agriculture and followed hunting and fishing economy.
  • Other important feature:
    • Use of a large number of well-polished bone and stone tools.
    • Large number of bone tools in form of harpoons, needles, arrowheads etc. is found.
    • Human and animal burials found.
      • Humans were buried both primarily and secondarily in pits, mostly dug into the house floors. In secondary burials skulls and long bones were preferred.=
      • Pet animals (e.g. dog) were buried along their masters.
    • Dwelling pits and storage pits are found.
    • Pottery:
      • The early pottery:- crude and handmade.
      • Later pottery:- wheel-made.

(vi) Archaeological site

Ropar or Sanghol (Both are nearby so can be written anyone of them)

  • In Rupnagar district, Punjab.
  • IVCPGW and NBPW.
  • No early Harappan level.
  • Transition from village to town in period c. 600–200 BCE, and yielded NBPW and punch-marked and copper coins.
  • A seal with an inscription in Brahmi.
  • Houses made of stone, mud-brick and burnt brick.
  • Iron workshop and agate beads in NBPW.

(vii) Ancient capital city

Kaushambi

  • In Kashambi district, Uttar Pradesh.
  • Capital of Vatsa, a Mahajanapada of the 6th century B.C.
  • Ashokan Pillars found here.
  • Centre of trade.
  • Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang visited.
  • Excavations reveal settlements dating back to 2nd millinum B.C.
  • PGW pottery, trace of iron etc pointing to a later Vedic settlement.

(viii) Ancient capital 

Ujjaini (or may be Mandsaur)

  • On the river Shipra, Madhya Pradesh.
  • Called Ujjaini and was the northern capital of Avanti Mahajanapadas of the 6th century BC.
  • With rise of Magadhan power, it came under the Magadhan Empire.
  • During the reign of Mauryan King Bindusara, Ashoka was the provincial governor of Ujjain.
  • NBPW found their way to the northern Deccan from the Gangetic plains through Ujjain.
  • Coins of Kshatrapas and Kushanas were found.
  • There is evidence of bead manufacturing here.
  • Associated with a king who called himself Vikramaditya and started the Vikram Samvat Era in 58 BC after defeating the Sakas.
  • Kalidasa was related to Ujjayini.
  • During Mughal time, Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh built the astronomical observatory here.
  • Most of the temples of Ujjain were constructed during Maratha period.
  • Mahakaleshwar Temple (among the 12 Jyotirlingas) situated here.
  • Famous for the Kumbh Mela.

(ix) Harappan site

Lothal

  • In Ahmedabad district, Gujarat
  • During pre harappan:  It was a small village.
  • Centre of  harbour, cotton and rice-growing and bead-making industry.
  • City divided into a citadel and a lower town.
  • The constructions were made of fire dried bricks, lime and sand mortar. The remains of the city give evidence to
  • A sophisticated drainage system.
  • Important findings:
    • Dockyard,
    • Persian Gulf Seals,
    • Shell ornaments maker’s shop,
    • Bead maker’s shop,
    • Metal worker’s shop,
    • Fire altars,
    • terracotta figurine of house,
    • warehouse,
    • merchant house,
    • impression of cloth on some of the sealing,
    • twelve bathrooms in the citadel area.
    • An ivory scale:- smallest-known decimal divisions in Indus civilisation.
  • connected to other cities through river route.
  • A coastal trade route had existed linking sites such as Lothal and Dholavira to Sutkagan Dor on the Makran coast.

Later Harappan culture:

  • Continued to be inhabited,
  • Much smaller population
  • Devoid of urban influences.
  • Trade and resources of the city were almost gone,
  • The people retained several Harappan ways in writing, pottery and utensils.

(x) Ancient inscriptions site

Junagarh/ Girnar

Girnar/Junagarh:

  • In Junagarh district, Gujarat.
  • Girnar Hill near Junagadh.
  • Major rock edicts of Ashoka:
    • On black granite
    • in Brahmi script
  • On the same rock there are inscriptions in Sanskrit added around 150 CE by Rudradaman I, the Saka ruler of Malwa, a member of the Western Kshatrapas dynasty:
    • earliest Sanskrit inscription
    • mentions renovation of Sudarshana Lake which was originally built by Pusyagupta the provincial governor of Chandragupta.
  • Another inscription dates from about 450 CE and refers to Skandagupta.
  • Many Jain and Hindu temples are located in Girnar.

(xi) A Rock-cut cave site

Pandav Leni Caves

  • In Nashik district, Maharashtra.
  • Buddhist cave site
    • 24 caves carved mainly between the 1st century BCE and the 3nd century CE.
    • Has Chaityas and Viharas.
    • Carved and donated by various kings mainly- the Satavahanas.
    • Images of Buddha, Bodhisattva, sculptures representing the King, farmers, merchants.
    • Some caves connected by stone-cut ladders to the other caves.
    • An excellent ancient water management system and water tanks.

(xii) Ancient capital city

Banavasi/ Konkanpura

  • Banavasi is in Uttara Kannada District.
  • Capital of Kadambas. 
    • They established themselves there in A.D. 345 and ruled South India for at least two centuries.
  • It is an ancient temple town
  • Hiuen Tsang visited Konkanapura called Konkanapulo.
  • Madhukeshwara Temple built in the 9th century and dedicated to Lord Shiva.
  • 5th-century copper coin of Kadamba king was discovered here with an inscription in the Kannada script.
  • Pampa, the poet of Kannada, wrote his epics in Banavasi.
  • The annual December cultural festival, Kadambothsava happens here.
  • A cultural centre especially of the Yakshagana art form.

(xiii) Famous temple site

Thanjavur

  • In Thanjavur District, Tamilnadu.
  • Capital of the Chola Empire.
  • Important center of religion, art, and architecture.
  • Chola Temples are UNESCO World Heritage Monuments.
  • Brihadeeswara Temple:
    • Built in the 11th century by Raja Raja Chola I.
    • Dedicated to the Hindu god Shiva.
    • Nandi (second largest in India), carved out of a single block of granite, guards the entrance of the sanctuary.
    • The walls of the sanctum are covered with wall paintings from the Chola and Nayaka periods.
    • It was replicated in the Gangaikonda Cholesvarar Temple constructed by Raja Raja’s son Rajendra Chola I.
  • Tanjore painting:
    • Dates back to early 17th century, the period of Nayakas of Thanjavur.
    • Episodes from religious texts visualised.
    • Even secular subjects were depicted.
  • Many epigraphs, inscriptions, coins etc belonging to different kings have been discovered.

(xiv) Centre of School of art

Amaravati

  • In Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh.
  • Meghalithic, BRW and NBPW site.
  • Inscription in Maurya Brahmi found.
  • Dhanyakataka – capital of Satavahanas.
  • Buddhist stupa:
    • Buddhist Stupa and Mahachaityas with marble and limestone sculptures.
    • Its carved panels tell the story of Buddha.
  • Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang visited in 7th century.
  • Ancient School of Arts:
    • Flourished  for  nearly  six  centuries commencing  from  200-100  BC.
    • Patronized first by the Satavahanas and later by the Ikshvakus.
    • Some Buddhist sculptures with Greco-Roman influence.

(xv) Ancient inscriptional site

Hathigumpha inscription (but location is not exact so may be Dhauli or Jaugada)

  • From Udayagiri, near Bhubaneswar in Odisha.
  • Inscription:
    • Inscribed by Kharavela, Kalinga ruler during 2nd century BCE.
    • Faces towards the Rock Edicts of Ashoka at Dhauli, situated nearby.
    • Consists of seventeen lines in Prakrit incised in a Brahmi script on a natural cavern Hathigumpha of Udayagiri hill.
    • Talks about:
      • military conquests of Kharvela, 
      • his orientation towards Janism,
      • his construction works,
      • his liberal religious spirit,
      • his favors to art like music and dance etc.
      • his retrieving an image of a jina.
    • This is the earliest epigraphic reference to image worship in Jainism.

(xvi) Ancient education centre

Nalanda (Odantpuri is also nearby but prefer to write more famous site which is Nalanda)

  • In Nalanda district, Bihar.
  • Taranatha, the 17th century Tibetan Lama, states that the 3rd century BCE Mauryan Emperor, Ashoka, built a great temple at Nalanda.
  • Mahavihara (University):
    • Flourished during Gupta, Harsha and Pala times.
    • A seal identifies Sakraditya (Kumargupta of 5th century) as founder.
    • 7th century Chinese Pilgrims like Hieun Tsang and I-tsing studied here.
      • I-tsing notes that revenues from 200 villages (as opposed to 100 in Hieun Tsang’s time) assigned toward the maintenance of Nalanda.
    • Library called Dharmaganja.
    • Teaching of religious (mainly Mahayana) and other subjects like grammar, logic, literature, astrology, astronomy, and medicine.
    • Influence of Vajrayana during Palas.
  • Destroyed by Bakhtiyar Khilji in 1200 CE.

(xvii) pre-Harappan site

Mehrgarh

  • In Baluchistan, Pakistan.
  • A Neolithic and Calcolithic site.
  • Neolithic:
    • Small farming and pastoralist village:
    • Planned ancient farm villages.
    • mud brick house (later sun-dried brick)
    • bone tools,
    • a-ceramic.
  • Precursor of IVC.
  • It was later abandoned with Harappan urbanisation.
  • One of the earliest sites with evidence of farming (wheat and barley), herding and metallurgy.
  • One of the earliest cultivation of cotton.
  • Evidence of fishing.
  • Unique discovery:- Dental surgery and related medicinal activities.
  • Figurines of terracotta found.

(xviii) Chalcolithic period site

Inamgaon

  • In Pune district, Maharashtra.
  • Post-Harappan Chalcolithic site.
  • Multiple cultural phases:- Jorwe culture and Malwa Culture found.
  • Habitation:
    • Early chalcolithic:
      • Mud and circular houses.
      • Storage pits.
      • Biggest houses with five room was of the ruling chief.
      • Granary.
    • Later Chalcolithic:
      • Fortified wall around the settled area.
  • Pottery:
    • Red with black designs.
  • Artefacts:
    • Stone tools for cutting plants, meat etc.
    • Few coppers tools and ornaments found.
      • Ornaments:- beads, bangles, and anklets. Later gold also.
      • Tools and weapons such as drills, fish hooks and arrowheads.
    • Beads of terracotta, semi-precious stones ivory, sea shells.
    • Terracotta figurines:-  toys, bull, female goddess etc.
  • Trade with other parts of the country.
  • Agriculture:
    • Wheat, barley, lentils, peas, gram and beans.
  • Bones of wild and domesticates.

(xix) Early inscriptional site

Mahastanagarh

  • In Bogra District, Bangladesh.
  • Also called Pundranagar, the capital city of ancient Pundra kingdom.
  • Provincial capital of the Mauryans, the Guptas, the Palas.
  • Artefacts:
    • Silver punch marked coins,
    • copper cast coins,
    • Gupta period coins,
    • shards,
    • terracotta plaques etc.
    • Buddha stone sculpture,
    • Buddha bronze sculpture
    • Lokesvara stone sculpture – blending of Vishnu and Avalokitsvara,
    • sand stone door-frames,
    • pillars and lintels
    • Inscriptions

(xx) Ancient petroglyphs site

Kandanathi (may be Kupgal)

  • Kandanathi (Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh) is the biggest petroglyph site in Andhra Pradesh.
  • The rock art comprised paintings/pictographs and petroglyphs.
  • Kandanathi is located at the foot of a hillock, having hummocky masses varying from large blocks to boulders on which petroglyphs were depicted, and most of them are facing east.
  • Detection of nearly 200 engravings, peckings and bruisings
  • Rock art with engravings, and peckings and bruisings, predominantly of humped bulls and also of human figures dating back to the Mesolithic, Neolithic, and pre-historic periods.
  • Maximum depictions are outlined. A few are flat wash, and the depicted figures are that of a tiger, streak of tigers, leopards, camels, bulls, elephants and horses, scenes of riders on bulls, camels and horses, hunting scenes with bow and arrow, sword and dagger etc
  • There was a carnival scene with humans playing musical instruments such as ‘dolu’ and ‘kommu’.
  • There were several depictions of bulls with various sizes of horns and humps, and in association with riders.
  • An uncanny one is that of a robust bull in flat wash measuring 50 cm in height and 50 cm in length with a high hump and an erected organ, which dates back to the Neolithic and pre-historic periods.

Note:

  • 19 out of 20 sites have been asked from our Map Material (except Kandanathi)
  • Any suggestion for the correction in answer is welcome.

 

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6 thoughts on “Map Based Questions with Solution- 2019 History Optional Mains Examination”

  1. Wrote Rana Ghundai(instead of Mehrgarh) which is also a pre harappan site as per UNESCO..with similar location. And Budihal/Piklihal instead of Kandanathi

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