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Origin and the rise of Rajputs

Origin and the rise of Rajputs

The term Rajput starts coming in use from the 6th Century AD. The origin of the Rajputs is the subject of debate. There are following main streams of thought on origin of Rajputs:
  • Tribal origin theory
    • Given by V.A. Smith.
    • Some tribal aboriginal groups became Rajputs like Gonds became Chandelas, Bhar became Rathore, Kharvar became Gahadwal.
    • Dharmasastras recognize the possibility of lower castes being elevated to higher castes. Even now such a process of elevation is continuously going on within the Hindu society.
  • By newly powerful groups
    • Various local groups of various kinds like tribal, lineage etc. rose in power and they claimed kshatriya status by fabricating their genealogies and presenting their kshatriya lineage. In this, the Brahmanas played the role and newly acquired power was legitimised.
    • Two terms used for the process: Kshatriyisation (By Hermann Kulke) and Rajputisation (By H. Sinha).
  • Foreign origin theory of Rajputs
    • This theory says that the Rajputs are descendents of the races like Sakas, Kushanas, Hunas etc.
    • Dr. VA Smith, Col. James Todd, William Crooks, Ishwari Prasad, D.R. Bhandarkar supported this theory.
    • The main argument of James Todd behind the foreign origin of the Rajputs was that these people worshipped Fire and Fire was the main deity of the Sakas and Hunas.
    • The absorption of foreigners in Hindu society was not a novel phenomenon in the age when Rajputs emerged from obscurity. There are historical instances showing that the Sakasentered into matrimonial relations with the Hindus. A Satvahana prince, for instance married Rudradaman’s daughter.
  • Mixed Origin Theory
    • This theory as put forward by Dr. DP Chatterjee says that Rajput is a mixed race.
    • Some of them were descendents of the Aryans while some of them were from the foreign races such as Hunas, Sakas etc.
  • Kashtriya theory of origin
    • This theory was propounded by Gauri Shankar Hirachand Ojha.
    • He says that the Rajputs are are not from the foreign origin and they are descendents of the ancient Kshatriyas belonging to the Solar and Lunar dynasties. They worship fire as the Aryans did and worship of fire was not the tradition of the foreigners only.
    • This view is also present in the bardic literature.
    • The word Rajaputra is mentioned in the Puranas. Banabhatta uses this term to denote a high-born Kshatriya.
    • But this was rejected on historical grounds by other historians.
  • Agnikula Theory
    • This theory comes from the late legends like the Prithvirajraso of Chandarbardai.
    • According to this theory, Rajputs were the result of a sacrificial fire-pit performed by Rishi Vashistha at “Guru Shikhar” in Mount Abu. The four Rajput clans from Agnikunda are Chauhans, Chalukyas, Parmaras and Pratiharas and thus belong to agni-kula.
    • This theory has been used by the historians who support foreign origin as it gives hint at purification rites performed for removing the impurity of the foreigners and absorbing them within the fold of Hinduism.
On the whole, the diversity of the cults and beliefs, manners and customs, prevalent among the Rajputs seem to indicate diversity of origin. For example, those Rajputs devoted to the worship of Sun may be regarded as foreigners in origin, while those which worship the serpent (naga) are probably descended from the aborigines of this country.
The Evolution of Rajput Polity:
  • The Arab Invaded Sind and Multan In 712-13 A.D. Within the next 25 years they overran Marwar, Malwa and Broach and threatened other parts of lndia. These raids contributed to remarkable changes in the political map of Western India and the Deccan.
    • Powers like Rashtrakutas and clans now known to us as Rajputs came to the fore in this period.
  • These clans not heard of in earlier times, began to play an important part from about the eighth century.
    • With obscure origins the lineages like the Paramaras and the Chahamanas, after passing through many vicissitudes, came to the fore in the context of the inter-state conflicts of the major powers such as the Gurjara Pratiharas and Rashtrakutas
  • The rise of the Rajputs to political prominence appears to be accidental. But an understanding of the early political developments shows that their appearance on the political scene was not sudden. The emergence of these clans took place within the existing hierarchical political structure. Their emergence, therefore, should be understood as a total process.
  • The process of emergence of the political powers in medieval western India shows that the distribution of political authority could be organised by a network of lineages within the framework of the monarchical form of polity.
  • Proliferation of Rajput Clans:
    • Sources: the bardic chronicles.
    • Dharanivaraha of the Paramara dynasty occupied and divided Marwar among his nine brothers.   Thus, apart from the Paramaras of Malwa there were at least four lines of the Paramaras ruling in : i) Abu, ii) Bhinmal. iii )Jalor, and iv)Vagada.
    • Similarly, apart from the Chahamanas of Broach there were other lines of the Chahamanas in Pratabgarh, Nadol, Shakambhari, Satyapura and Abu.
    • The Chapas were another Rajput clan of the early medieval period. They ruled over principalities like Bhillamala, Vadhiar etc.
    • Similarly the Guhilas ruled over the regions of Udaipur and Mewar.
    • There were emergence of various minor clans also.
  • Formation of lineage power:
    • The formation and consolidation of lineage power did not develop in a uniform way.
    • One of the indicators of the process of lineage power formation was the colonization of new areas, as is evident in the expansion of the number of settlements.
      • The colonization of new areas could result from the annexation of the new territories by means of organised military strength.
    • Territorial expansion of the Western Indian powers was accomplished, on some areas, at the expense of tribal settlements.
      • For example, Mandor Pratihar Kakkaka is said to have resettled a place which was terrible because of being inhabited by the Abhiras.
      • Similarly, there are examples of the suppression of tribal population like Shabaras, Bhillas and Pulindas in Western and Central India.
    • The bardic tradition also suggests that the Guhila kingdoms in south Rajasthan succeeded the earlier tribal chiefdoms of the Bhils.
    • Political authority of a lineage could even be brought about by simply replacing one lineage by another as evident in the case of the Chahamanas of Jalor.
      • Here Kirtipala, a Chahamana Rajput, attacked Paramaras of Jalor and made it the capital of his new kingdom.
      • Similarly Chahamana line of Broach was brought into being by replacing the Gurjaras of Broach.
    • Thus, the formation of lineage power evolved through multiple channels and processes which were not compartmentalized and interacted with one another.
  • Process of rising in social status:
    • The political history of Western lndia shows that a large ethnic group of an area could successfully compete for political power.
    • Some families attained political dominance and became ruling lineages. They could rise in the social ladder in favourable political circumstances.
  • Consolidation of lineage power:
    • The land distribution among the members of ruling lineages. The land assignments like grasa, grasabhumil or bhukti were held by the King.
    • The construction of fortresses on a large scale in different locations. Apart from serving defence purposes the fortresses also worked as foci of control for their rural surrounding and helped the process of the consolidation of ruling families.
    • The marriage network among the ruling clans is another pointer to the process of the consolidation of clan power at the social level.
      • Marriage network brought about inter-clan relationship which had significant political implications because the families were mostly the ruling Rajput clans.
      • e.g. Paramara-Rashtrakuta, Chahamana-Paramara matrimonial relations.
Nature and Structure of Polity:
  • Political Instability:
    • Mobilization of military strength could not only displace a ruling lineage but also create new locus and network of power.
      • e.g. the Vagada branch of the main line of the Paramaras.   This Vagada branch continued to be a loyal feudatary line for centuries till Chamundaraja; one of Its rulers defied the Paramaras of Malwa and became independent in the second half of the eleventh century. The Vagada was lost to the kingdom of Malwa in the beginning of the twelfth century. After 3 decades, the Paramara family of Vagada branch was dethroned by by a different geneology.
      • This shows the frequent change of ruling class in the regions.
  • Bureaucratic Structure:
    • It is hardly likely that the early medieval powers such as the Chaulukyas, Paramaras and Chahamanas could give stable government to the country without a powerful bureaucracy in the structure of their polities.
    • We come across the names of a number, of officers who evidently assisted in the transaction of’ the affairs of the state.
      • Lekhapaddhati furnishes the names of karanas (departments) of the government. It is supposed to be applicable to the Chaulukya government as the largest number of its documents are datable to the Chaulukya poriod in the history of Gujarat. A few karanas mentioned in the work also figure in the Chaulukya records.
      • Sri-Karana (Chief secretariat). for instance, is a familiar term in their inscriptions.
      • Also known from their records are Vyaya Karana or the accounts department, Vyapara-Karana or the department in charge of general supervision of trade and the collection of import and export duties and mandapika-karna or the secretariat in charge of the collection of taxes.
      • Such karanas were headed by ministers known by the term mahamatyas.
    • Besides the mahamatyas, there were other officers called mahamantrins, mantrins and sachivas.
      • The information about their status is very meagre as they are only casually mentioned in only a few inscriptions.
    • Of the more frequently mentioned officers in early medieval Western India was mahasandhivigrahika who was a minister of peace and war and whose duties also included that of a conveyor of a grant.
    • Another officer mentioned was mahakshapatalika or the head of accounts or record office.
      • He kept a full account of the income of the statc and also of the expenditure.
    • Mahamantrin or mahapradhana, literally meaning a chief minister, was an official of great iniportance.
      • He held charge of the royal seal and exercised general supervision over all departments.
    • Dandanayaka or senapati was also an important official, who was primarily a military officer.
    • baladhipas were officers in charge of the military stationed in outposts and towns were placed under him.
      • The whole administration was controlled by a department. the Baladhikarana, stationed at the capital.
  • Lineage State and Feudal Polity
    • From the Gupta period onwards there was a marked inter-relatedness of polities, which was the result of the horizontal spread of state society.
    • It was not just consolidation of the lineage power was linked with the factor of landholding. The exercise of Important governmental functions was gradually being linked up with landholding. e.g.
      • Under the rule of the Gurjara Pratiharas we find references to estates held by chiefs of the Chahamana, Guhila and Chalukya clans.
      • The Kalvan plates of Yashovarman (of the time of the Paramara King Bhojadeva) mentions a chief who had acquired a royal charter of 84 villages, obviously from his overlord.
    • In these Rajput states, the phenomenon of different levels of power cuts across all major political structures reflects the feudal polity.
    • What is broadly labelled as samanta system was not however, a uniform category. It included a wide range of status all of which corresponded to the landed aristocracy of the period.
    • The Kingdoms of all the major powers included the territories which were under the control of the feudatories who were known under the generic title of mandalika, but sometimes styled themselves as maharajadhiraja, mahamandalesvara, mahamandalikas, mahasamantas and samantas.
    • The most important of the feudatory princes of the Chaulukyas were the Paramaras of Abu and the Chahamanas of Jalor.
    • Similarly, a considerable portion of the Chahamana state was held by landed intermediaries variously known as thakkuras, ranakas, and bhoktas, on the condition that they supplied certain quotas of soldiers when required by the overlord.
    • The categories of feudatory chiefs:
      • who were rewarded by the King with land in consideration of their valuable services;
      • who had built up their own principalities during the period of aggrandisement and acknowledged the supremacy of the premier line. e.g. the Pararnaras of Vagada, and the Paramaras of Kiradu.
      • who had carved out their principalities by the force of their own arms in defiance of the central authority during the difficult days of overlord.
      • who were defeated and forced to accept the suzerainty of the Paramaras and were given the status of a vassal.
    • Big feudatory chiefs enjoyed large amount of internal autonomy.
      • They could create their own sub-feudatories and appoint their own officers.
      • It was possible for feudatory chiefs also to distribute their lands among their dependents.
      • The thakkuras served the feudatory chiefs in almost all the feudatory states under the Paramaras.
      • The feudatories could also assign taxes, alienate villages and exempt certain people from taxation.
      • This practice of granting land and its associated fiscal and administrative rights is called sub-infeudation.
    • Thus, in course of time the samanta system encompassed a proliferating range of designations and assumed the characteristics of a hierarchical political formation represented by the ranks such as ranaka, rauta, thakkura, samanta, mahasamanta, etc.
    • The incidence of grants to state officials vary from one region to another.
      • To illustrate, while we hear about half a dozen Paramara official ranks, only a few of them are known to have received land grants.
      • But very large terrritories were granted to vassals and high officers under the Chaulukyas of Gujarat. Chaulukya copperplates of 12th-13th centuries and their comparison with the data of the Lekhapaddhati help us in stressing that vassals and high officers gradually merged into one another.
    • Indeed some Chandella inscriptions of the late twelfth and early thirteenth century specifically enjoin the feudatories, royal officials, forest officials. constables, etc. to give up-their perquisites in the villages transferred as gifts.
    • There are also references to resumption of such rights.
    • The feudatories owed fiscal and military obligations to the overlord. Generally the authority of the feudatories was derivative, dependent on the fulfilment of certain conditions: e.g.
      • supplying the overlord with certain quotas of soldiers in time of need. e.g. the paramaras of Vagada fought in the cause of the imperial Paramaras of Malwa
        • However, the feudatory chiefs were eager to free themselves whenever there was an opportunity. In this case the relation between the suzerain and vassal rested absolutely on, the force one could use.
        • For example. the Guhilas of Mewar accepted the Paramara overlordship when they were defeated by Vakapati-11 but tried to re-establish their lost position during the period of confusion which followed the death of Bhoja-I.
      • The most important duty of a feudatory prince was to help his suzerain against the enemy.
        • Sometimes the feudatories conquered new territories for the suzerain or brought another prince under the later’s vassalage.
      • An inscription seems to imply that at the accession of a new King the feudatories swore loyalty to their new overlord who confirmed them in their possession.
      • Feudatories are also said to have paid tribute to their overlord both in cash and kind.
    • However, there was no hard and fast rule regarding the obligations of the feudatory chiefs of different categories.
      • The general relations between the overlord and the feudatory depended upon the circumstances and relative strength of the feudatory vis-a-vis his suzerain.
    • Often the strength of the feudatory bonds depended upon the personality of the overlord.
      • Overlords who went on expeditions to distant lands had to entrust some of their capable generals with the administration of certain territories as feudatory chiefs.
    • Often samantas had no permanent bonds and were prepared to transfer their allegiance to a powerful invader in return for greater privileges.
  • To summaries the prominent features of polity:
    • A strong feudal character:
      • Period of feudal consolidation.
      • Overlord – subordinate relationship was an essential feature.
      • Chain of personal allegiance which bound retainers to chief, tenants to lords, barons, to Kings.
      • Hierarchical political structure represented by various ranks.
    • The central feature of polity being fiefs or estates:
      • administrative structure based on the control and possession of land,
      • Special pattern of land distribution.
      • Land holding was a status symbol.
      • Consolidation of political status through land holding. Fiefs, estates consolidated the position of individuals.
      • These land holdings emerged as centres of local control and foci of power and on this was based the existence of local ruling elites.
    • Greater degree of autonomy in political system
      • At lower level, the autonomy of various degree in administration, fiscal system and administration of justice and this autonomy was to give birth to local politics and this integrated into larger state politics.
      • This was a hallmark of political system of the Rajputs.
      • Under feudal system the feudal lord fulfilled military & fiscal obligations. Infact feudal authority rested on fulfillment of these obligations.
      • They being provided military assistance paid tributes in cash and kind to king.
    • Centralization tended to be very weak:
      • This overlord – subordinate relationship being the core of the political system and the relative strength of the feudatory vis-a vis the suzerain was a factor in determining the stability of the system.
      • wielding of vast-administrative and financial powers by vassals and offten to the, extent of sub-infeudation => hierarchy of landed intermediaries,
      • fragmentation of political authority,
    • Application of force and ability to overawe / overpower samantas/ Mutual distrust and acrimony:
      • This was important in maintaining this relationship because the tendency towards autonomy was always powerful.
      • This disrupted political stability. Centralised control weakened.
    • The kingship concept:
      • The kingship concept was important i.e. concept of all powertul king, through in a limited sense. A number of authorities vested in the king.
      • This does not mean centralized control but various authorities vested in him.
    • Existence of council of ministers:
      • Existence of council of ministers, their role being advisory.
    • Military being feudal in character:
      • Military was feudal in character. King’s standing army was greatly supplemented by the army of the feudal lords.
      • Military aid or assistence being one of the two main obligations of the feudatories.
      • Old military organisation and strategy
    • Existence of bureaucracy:
      • References show that bureaucracy was well organised and elaborate but this is not a historical truth.
      • The designation of the officials continued as before like Akshapatalika Mahapratihara, Mahasandhivigrahik.
      • Bureacracy did not play any significence role because of the polity being feudal.
      • Devolution of powers. Feudal lords enjoyed considerable powers.
    • The revenue system:
      • The revenue system was mainly based on land tax.
      • Certain levies on trade and commerce too were collected.
      • Revenue system was under great pressure because of feudal economy.
      • Centralised revenue system lost relevance.
      • It rested on feudal tribute.
      • oppression end immobility of peasants
      • restricted use of metal money
Rajput’s Society and Culture:
  • The Rajput society was feudal in its organizational set up. It was split up into various clans, each under one or more hereditary ruling houses. They showed great loyalty, and implicit obedience to their chieftains.
  • The main profession of the Rajputs was fighting in defence of his clan and its chief.
  • The village communities in Rajput societies were governed by their panchayats and enjoyed considerable autonomy in their internal affairs.
  • There was no written law of the land; the Rajput states were run on local customs and traditions. The feudal administrative set up was usually not very elaborate; in most cases, it was not efficient or stable either.
  • The Rajputs were known for their undaunted courage and chivalry. They were honest, generous and hospitable and kept their word. They were somewhat haughty and emotional.
    • They were simple, outspoken and straight forward people who rejected outright the Machiavellian principles of deceit and treachery in war.
    • They were sometimes generous to a fault in their treatment of the vanquished foe.
  • The Rajputs were freedom-loving people with a keen sense of honor and self-respect. They constituted, in fact, the ‘sword-arm of Hindustan‘.
  • They were great warriors who took to fighting as a sport and smilingly laid down their lives for the honor of their family, clan or the regional leader.
  • The Rajput women enjoyed considerable freedom and respect in the society.
    • They were known for their chastity and devotion to their husbands.
    • There was no purdah system among them.
    • They had some freedom in the selection of their husbands too; swayamvar was in vogue among the princesses for this purpose.
    • Rigid caste system, sati, child marriage and ban of widow remarriage were very common among the Rajputs.
      • The custom of sati was prevalent though not insisted upon.
    • They continued to be denied the right to study the Vedas. Some of the Rajput ladies of higher families were educated and took active part in public life.
    • They did not lag behind their men folk in bravery and heroism. Many of them participated in warfare and fought the enemy, shoulder to shoulder with their men folk.
    • When their warriors were defeated or killed, the Rajput ladies sacrificed their lives by burning themselves alive or committing suicides en-mass, in manifold ways, in order to safeguard their honor and self-respect; it was called the rite of jauhar.
  • Caste system was the basis of social organization. There was proliferation of castes.
    • During this period the disabilities which the lower castes suffered increased. Most of the workers like weavers, fishermen, barbers, etc. as well as tribal were treated very harshly.
    • Rajput’s as a new caste had appeared on the scene. In course of time all ruling families belonging to various castes were classified as Rajput’s.
  • Education and science:
    • Education was confined to a small section— Brahmans and some sections of upper classes.
    • Nalanda in Bihar was the famous centre of higher learning. Other important centres were Vikramasila and Uddandapura.
    • Several Saiva centres of learning flourished in Kashmir.
    • Religion and philosophy were the popular subjects for study and discussion
  • Religious:
    • They were champions of Hinduism, though some of them patronized Jainism.
    • Rich donations and grant of land to Brahmans and temples.
    • Protectors of the privileges of Brahmans and caste system.
    • In return Brahmans legitimized their rule.
    • Buddhism had losing its popularity. It had a great patronage under the Palas of Bengal. Jainism was patronised by the Chalukyan rulers of Karnataka.
  • Art and architecture:
    • Their rule also saw the climax of temple building activity in north India. e.g.
      • Khajuraho temples in Madhya Pradesh by Chandellas => these temples that art of sculpture had attained its height.
      • Mt. Abu Jain temple.
    • They built several canals, dams, forts, palaces, towers etc. The palaces of Jaipur and Udaipur and forts of Chittor, Mandu, Jodhpur and Gwalior are the fine specimens of palace and fort architecture. They also built works of public benefits such as stepped wells (baolis). bunds etc.
    • Fine palaces, powerful forts and works of public benefits such as stepped wells (baolis). bunds etc.
    • The Lingaraj Temple at Bhubaneswar and Surya (Sun) Temple at Konark exhibit the excellence of temple architecture of this age.
  • Patronized arts and letters:
    • Many books and plays were written in Sanskrit.
    • Vastupala, a famous minister of the Chalukyan ruler Bhima in Gujarat, was a writer and patron of scholars and the builder of the beautiful Jain temple at Mt. Abu. Ujjain.
    • Dhara, the capitals of the Paramara rulers were famous centre for Sanskrit learning.
    • Many works were written in Apabhramsha and Prakrit which represented the languages of the region.
    • The Jain scholar Hemchandra wrote both in Sanskrit and Apabhramsha.
    • Examples: Kalhana’s ‘Rajtarangini’ a history of Kashmir and Chandbardoi’s ‘Prithviraj Raso’ dealing with the exploits of his patron Prithviraj Chauhan may be mentioned.
  • Limitations:
    • The excessively martial character of the Rajputs had its dark side as well.
    • Their love for personal freedom, vanity, inflated ego and false sense of pride did not permit them to subordinate their interests or pay obedience to their more capable leaders.
    • They lacked political foresight and displayed absence of an overall national consciousness. Terms like ‘patriotism’, ‘motherland’ and the ‘state’ had assumed narrow, parochial or regional connotations with them.
    • As a result, there were constant wars and clannish feuds among them which hampered the growth of national unity and the emergence of a strong national state in India. The various clans went to war or their chiefs fought the duels simply to show off their military prowess or muscle power respectively.
    • They had converted mutual warfare into a sort of sport in which valuable resources in men and material were laid waste and military strength neutralized.
    • Because of these self-destructive and rather suicidal tendencies, the Rajputs failed to take concerted action against the Muslim invaders.
    • Traditional high ethical norms in fighting i.e. protection to refugees and vanquished enemies, not attacking the unarmed enemies; adhering to lofty moral conventions in-spite of being harmed several times.
    • General conditions of the people: There was a great disparity in the standard of living of the people.
      • The ministers, officials, feudal chiefs, and those having the opportunity to accumulate wealth lived in luxury and splendor.
      • The ordinary people lived in misery. The peasants were burdened with the land revenue and other taxes levied at the whims of the feudal lords. Besides they had to render forced labour.
    • On the whole, growth of the knowledge of science slowed down. Since society became increasingly rigid, thinking was mostly confined to traditional philosophy and India developed an insular attitude cut off from the main currents of scientific thought outside India. Science did not get proper scope or opportunity to develop.
The economy during Rajput age:
  • Agriculture as the main occupation:
    • The Rajput rulers dug out canals and tanks and collected rain water in artificial lakes for purpose of irrigation.
    • Dams were also raised. Irrigation facilities improved agriculture and the economic condition of the cultivators though they sometimes had to suffer at the hands of some autocratic feudal chiefs.
  • Taxes:
    • Land revenue was the chief source of income and it was determined under a set formula depending upon the fertility of the soil, irrigation facilities etc.
    • Land revenue was paid mainly in farm produce and a part in cash.
    • Gifts, fines, minerals, tolls, forests and leased-out lands etc were additional sources of income.
  • Industry:
    • Although there were several types of industries, on the whole, the state of industry declined during the period.
    • Important industries were:
      • Cotton cloth making
      • Woolen cloth,
      • Weapon industry,
      • Manufacture of salt,
      • Carving high quality artistic pieces,
      • Statues making from ‘Ashtadhatus’ (eight metals),
      • Pottery making,
      • Ornament making,
      • Other industries were: ‘gur’ making, sugar, oil and liquor etc.
  • Trade and commerce:
    • Internal as well as external trade declined. However, this trend was not uniform in whole India.
      • The declined of long distance trade within the country apparently led to the decline of trade guilds and shrenis and sanghs.
      • The Dharmshastras which are written during this period, a ban on sea travel. The travel across the salt seas was considered polluting.
        • However, such ban was not always adhered to.
    • Along with seaborne trade, India also had foreign trade through land.
      • A brisk trade between South India and the countries of Southeast Asia has started from the 6th century onwards.
        • The Harisena’s Brihatkatha-kosh, reflects geographical aspects as well ass peculiar features of the language of the area, their dresses etc.
        • There are many stories about the adventures of the Indian merchants e.g the well-known stories of Sindbad the sailor.
      • The south India, the merchants were organised into guilds, the most famous being the Manigraman and the Nandesi.
    • On account of the decline of the Roman empire, seaborne trade of India suffered.
    • From Central Asia and Western countries India imported horses of high breed and high quality wine, Chinese silk, grapes from Cambodia and some other articles.
    • India imported several spices from south-east Asian countries
    • India’s exports consisted of sandalwood, camphor, cloves, indigo, ivory, coconut, herbs of many types, black pepper, cardamoms, hides, ‘tusar’, and woolen clothes.

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