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Architecture, Culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire: Part II

Architecture, Culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire: Part II Description of Vijayanagara city in the light of the account of foreign travellers Nicolo Conti An Italian traveler visited Vijayanagara in 1420 just after accession of Devaraya I. First known foreign traveler in Vijayanagara. Mentions fortification of the city. Thousands of men employed in […]

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Architecture, Culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire: Part I

Architecture, Culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire: Part I The establishment of the powerful state of Vijayanagara Empire in 14th century filled the political vacuum in southern India and left a permanent impression in the fields of administration, culture, religion, art and architecture. These contributions are more focused on promoting Hindu Religion and […]

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Third Battle of Panipat: 1761

Third Battle of Panipat: 1761 The Third Battle of Panipat took place between northern expeditionary force of the Maratha Empire and invading forces of the King of Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Abdali, supported by two Indian allies—the Rohilla Afghans (Najib ad-Dawlah) of the Doab, and Shuja-ud-Daula, the Nawab of Awadh. The battle is considered one of […]

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Cholas: administration, village economy and society: Part II

Cholas: administration, village economy and society: Part II Local self-government under the Cholas The system of village autonomy with assemblies (Sabhas, Urs and Nagaram) and their committees (Variyams) developed through the ages and reached its culmination during the Chola rule. Two inscriptions belonging to the period of Parantaka I found at Uttaramerur provide details of […]

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Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: Turkish advance towards India,The Ghurian invasions – factors behind Ghurian success

Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: Turkish advance towards India,The Ghurian invasions – factors behind Ghurian success West and Central Asia are connected to India geographically across mountain barriers which demarcate India from Central and West Asia but do not pose an insurmountable barrier, like the Himalayas to the north. In consequence, nomadic and semi-nomadic hordes […]

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Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans – Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban: Part II

Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans – Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban: Part II Balban: Originally known as Ulugh Khan, He was one of the Chihalgani Turks. Although He ascended the throne only in 1266, the entire period from 1246 to his death in 1287 may be called the age of […]

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Condition of women (Early Medieval India, 750-1200)

Condition of women (Early Medieval India, 750-1200) Condition of women As in the earlier period, status of women was subordinate to that of men. Married women were required to be devoted to their husband and also to obey then blindly. A writer illustrates the wife’s duty of personal service towards her husband by saying that […]

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Foreign contacts: Ibn Battuta’s accounts: Part II

Foreign contacts: Ibn Battuta’s accounts: Part II Evidence of slavery in Ibn Battuta’s account Ibn Batuta’s observation provide useful insights into the social and economic life of Tughluq sultanate including slavery and slave market. Slave market: Ibn Batutta’s travelling accounts tell us that slaves (male and female) were openly sold in the markets like any […]

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Albiruni’s India: Part II

Albiruni’s India: Part II Religion and religious beliefs & practices Alberuni extensively quotes Patanjali, Gita, Puranas and Samkhya school of philosophy to discuss the Hindu belief in God. He says that the Hindus believe with regard to God that he is one, eternal, without beginning and end. He observes the belief of the educated class […]

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Kalhan’s Rajtarangini: Part II

Kalhan’s Rajtarangini: Part II Kalhan’s views in history Kalhan in prologue of his book Rajatarangini expresses his view on history. Following are Kalhan’s view on historiography and his way of writing history which makes him the greatest historian of his time: Kalhana says that a good history has power to take the person into past […]

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