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Land revenue system under Akbar

Land revenue system under Akbar The land revenue system as it emerged under Akbar may be considered the culmination of developments which had started much earlier, even before the establishment of the Delhi Sultanat. The evolution of the revenue system under Akbar, leading to what is called the dahsala or Ten-Year system in the 24th […]

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Educational development during Sultanate period

Educational development during Sultanate period Education system of Sultanate period can be divided into two parts: Islamic education system Non-Islamic education system (Hindu, Buddhist and Jain) Islamic education system Subjects: Traditional in spirit and theological in content. Quran, Shariat, Arabic grammar, Persian grammar and various secular subjects like mathematics, astronomy, medicine etc. Traditional subjects (manqulat) […]

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The Lekhapaddhati

Lekhapaddhati A text that gives direct, useful historical information is the anonymous Lekhapaddhati, a work in Sanskrit and Prakrit composed in Gujarat in about the 13th century. It contains models of various types of legal documents. It contains a collection of specimen letters and provides rules for drafting a variety of documents, such as rules […]

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Nature of political system of Marathas

Nature of political system of Maratha The nature of political system of Marathas can be divided into three main phases: Phase I (17th century): Centralised nature of Maratha political system (under Shivaji) Centralised state machinery: Shivaji as an absolute ruler with all powers concentrated in his hands. He was a benevolent despot. Ashtapradhan: Council of […]

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Rana Kumbha’s cultural contribution

Rana Kumbha’s cultural contribution Rana Kumba (1438-68) was a great ruler of Mewar in medieval period. He was a great patron of literature and art. An estimate of Rana Kumbha as a patron of literature and art: Music He had a keen interest in music and he was a great musician himself. He was a […]

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Mansabdari System

Mansabdari System The Mughal emperors maintained a large and efficient army till the reign of Aurangzeb. The credit of organising the Mughal nobility and army systematically goes to Akbar. The steel-frame of Akbar’s military policy was the mansabdari system. Through it he set up a bureaucracy which was half-civil and half-military in character. The word […]

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Persian literature in Mughal India

Persian literature in Mughal India With the coming of the Mughals, a new era in Persian lite­rature started. Babur Babur brought with him poets and scholars like Abu’l Wahid Farighi, Nadir Samarquandi and Tahir Khwandi from Central Asia. Though Babur himself wrote in Turkish, his court provided forum to both Persian and Turkish writers. Babur […]

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Bahmani Administrative System

Bahmani Administrative System The founder of the Bahmani kingdom was Alauddin Bahman Shah also known as Hasan Gangu in 1347 with capital as Gulbarga (later Ahmad Wali Shah shifted the capital from Gulbarga to Bidar). There were total of fourteen Sultans ruling over this kingdom. Among them, Alauddin Bahman Shah, Muhammad Shah I and Firoz […]

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Bernier’s account of India

Bernier’s account of India François Bernier was a French physician, traveler, political philosopher and historian. He was in India for twelve years, from 1656 to 1668. He was closely associated with the Mughal court, as a physician to Prince Dara Shikoh, the eldest son of Emperor Shah Jahan, after Dara Shikoh’s demise, was attached to […]

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Shams Siraj Afif’s Account- Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi

Shams Siraj Afif’s Account- Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi, written by Shams Siraj Afif, gives a detailed account of the reign of Sultan Firuz Shah Tughlaq (1351-1388 AD). It was written some years after the invasion of Delhi by Timur (1398) i.e. after the death of the Sultan. It is the continuation of the Tarikh-i Firuz […]

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