Solution: Daily Problem Practice for 2021 History Optional [Modern India: Day 5]

Solution: Daily Problem Practice for 2021 History Optional [Modern India: Day 5]

Q. “New social economy during the British rule gave birth to the new social classes.” Comment. [10 Marks]


New political system, new education system and new social economy created basis for the birth of new social classes in the British period. New social economy was the product of new economic policies and consequent changes like –

  • land revenue re-organisation
  • modern industries
  • introduction of private properties in land (zamindari and raiyatwari system).
  • commercialization of agriculture
  • trade and commerce policy
  • plantation
  • mining

New social classes in rural areas

  • New class of
    • zamindar,
    • peasant proprietors,
    • tenants,
    • money lenders,
    • absentee-landlords/zamindars.
  • Except absentee-landlords, others were present in Mughal period also but their status, position, function substantially changed and even transformed under British rule.

New social classes in urban areas

  • Modern class of capitalist (Merchant, Industrial, Financial)
  • Modern workers or labourers
  • Educated middle class and intelligentia – lawyers, teachers, civil servants, writers, ddoctors,, army officers, clerks, technicians etc.

New social classes also depict new character

  • ‘Class consciousness’ which was absent earlier.
  • ‘Class unity’ though development was uneven.
  • ‘Class organisation’ e.g. trade unions, landholder’s society, kishan sabhas.
  • ‘Class movement’ e.g. peasant movement, labour movement.


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