Solution: Daily Problem Practice for 2021 History Optional [Ancient India: Day 5]

Solution: Daily Problem Practice for 2021 History Optional [Ancient India: Day 5]

Q. Identify the following places marked on the map and write a short note of about 30 words each. Locational hints for each of the places marked  on the map are given below seriatim. [2.5×6= 15]

(i) Ancient political centre


  • Modern Peshawar in NWF province of Pakistan.
  • Capital of Kushana ruler Kanishka (2nd century AD).
  • Kushana period:
    • Sculptures,
    • Buddhist stupa,
    • Buddhist Chaitya.
  • Trade centre as it lied on old silk route..
  • Centre of Buddhist learning.
  • Mentioned by Chinese pilgrim Faxian and Xuanzang.

(ii) Famous inscription site

Mandsaur Inscription

  • In the Malwa region, in Mandsaur district, Madhya Pradesh.
  • Mandasor Pillar Inscriptions of Yashodharman:
    • In Sanskrit from early 6th-century.
    • Record victory of Malwa king Yasodharman over the Hun king Mihirakula.
  • Mandsaur Inscription of Kumar Gupta:
    • Dated to 5th century.
    • Records that many silk weavers migrated from Lata (Gujarat) to Dasapura.
    • Some adopted other occupations while those who adhered to their original craft organised themselves into a guild.
    • Guild of silk weavers built a sun temple in 437 AD.

(iii) Ancient political and cultural centre

Tanjore/ Thanjavur

  • In Thanjavur District, Tamilnadu.
  • Capital of the Chola Empire.
  • Important center of religion, art, and architecture.
  • Chola Temples are UNESCO World Heritage Monuments.
  • Brihadeeswara Temple:
    • Built in the 11th century by Raja Raja Chola I.
    • Dedicated to the Hindu god Shiva.
    • Nandi (second largest in India), carved out of a single block of granite, guards the entrance of the sanctuary.
    • The walls of the sanctum are covered with wall paintings from the Chola and Nayaka periods.
    • It was replicated in the Gangaikonda Cholesvarar Temple constructed by Raja Raja’s son Rajendra Chola I.
  • Tanjore painting:
    • Dates back to early 17th century, the period of Nayakas of Thanjavur.
    • Episodes from religious texts visualised.
    • Even secular subjects were depicted.
  • Many epigraphs, inscriptions, coins etc belonging to different kings have been discovered.

(iv) Ancient education and religious centre


  • In Bhavnagar district (Saurashtra), Gujarat.
  • Capital of the Maitraka Dynasty (480-775 CE).
  • Established by the founder of the dynasty, Senapati Bhatarka.
  • Centre of learning, Buddhist monasteries.
  • Visited by the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang and Yijing in 7th century.
  • Second Jaina council under Devardhi held in 6th century CE when Jaina scriptures assumed their present form.

(v) Ancient cave site

Karla Caves (Bhaja Cave is also nearby)

  • Near Lonavala, Maharashtra.
  • The shrines developed over two periods:
    • 2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD,
    • 5th century AD to the 10th century.
  • On ancient trade route.
  • Associated with the Mahasamghika sect of Buddhism and later with Hinduism.
  • Carved chaitya- among the largest rock-cut chaityas in India.
  • viharas
  • Sculptures:
    • human.
    • animals such as lions and elephants.
  • Arched entrances and vaulted interiors.
  • An Ashokan pillar found.

(vi) Ancient capital city


  • In Anuradhapura District, North Central province, Sri Lanka.
  • Sacred city for Buddhism
  • Ancient capital of Sri Lanka.
  • This city was established around a cutting from the ‘tree of enlightenment’, the Buddha’s fig tree, brought there in the 3rd century B.C. by Sanghamitta, the founder of an order of Buddhist nuns.
  • According to Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa,
    • Ashoka had sent his son Mahinda, to Srilanka.
    • He met king Devanampiya Tissa and preached the doctrine.
    • In later period, the royal family and nobility of Sri Lanka strongly supported Buddhism.
  • Art works featuring depictions of Avalokitesvara, the Bodhisattva of Mercy and Compassion, became popular.
  • Ancient monuments like Buddhist temples, stupas etc. found.


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