Solution: Daily Problem Practice for 2021 History Optional [Ancient India: Day 5]
Q. Identify the following places marked on the map and write a short note of about 30 words each. Locational hints for each of the places marked on the map are given below seriatim. [2.5×6= 15]
(i) Ancient political centre
- Modern Peshawar in NWF province of Pakistan.
- Capital of Kushana ruler Kanishka (2nd century AD).
- Kushana period:
- Buddhist stupa,
- Buddhist Chaitya.
- Trade centre as it lied on old silk route..
- Centre of Buddhist learning.
- Mentioned by Chinese pilgrim Faxian and Xuanzang.
(ii) Famous inscription site
- In the Malwa region, in Mandsaur district, Madhya Pradesh.
- Mandasor Pillar Inscriptions of Yashodharman:
- In Sanskrit from early 6th-century.
- Record victory of Malwa king Yasodharman over the Hun king Mihirakula.
- Mandsaur Inscription of Kumar Gupta:
- Dated to 5th century.
- Records that many silk weavers migrated from Lata (Gujarat) to Dasapura.
- Some adopted other occupations while those who adhered to their original craft organised themselves into a guild.
- Guild of silk weavers built a sun temple in 437 AD.
(iii) Ancient political and cultural centre
- In Thanjavur District, Tamilnadu.
- Capital of the Chola Empire.
- Important center of religion, art, and architecture.
- Chola Temples are UNESCO World Heritage Monuments.
- Brihadeeswara Temple:
- Built in the 11th century by Raja Raja Chola I.
- Dedicated to the Hindu god Shiva.
- Nandi (second largest in India), carved out of a single block of granite, guards the entrance of the sanctuary.
- The walls of the sanctum are covered with wall paintings from the Chola and Nayaka periods.
- It was replicated in the Gangaikonda Cholesvarar Temple constructed by Raja Raja’s son Rajendra Chola I.
- Tanjore painting:
- Dates back to early 17th century, the period of Nayakas of Thanjavur.
- Episodes from religious texts visualised.
- Even secular subjects were depicted.
- Many epigraphs, inscriptions, coins etc belonging to different kings have been discovered.
(iv) Ancient education and religious centre
- In Bhavnagar district (Saurashtra), Gujarat.
- Capital of the Maitraka Dynasty (480-775 CE).
- Established by the founder of the dynasty, Senapati Bhatarka.
- Centre of learning, Buddhist monasteries.
- Visited by the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang and Yijing in 7th century.
- Second Jaina council under Devardhi held in 6th century CE when Jaina scriptures assumed their present form.
(v) Ancient cave site
Karla Caves (Bhaja Cave is also nearby)
- Near Lonavala, Maharashtra.
- The shrines developed over two periods:
- 2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD,
- 5th century AD to the 10th century.
- On ancient trade route.
- Associated with the Mahasamghika sect of Buddhism and later with Hinduism.
- Carved chaitya- among the largest rock-cut chaityas in India.
- animals such as lions and elephants.
- Arched entrances and vaulted interiors.
- An Ashokan pillar found.
(vi) Ancient capital city
- In Anuradhapura District, North Central province, Sri Lanka.
- Sacred city for Buddhism
- Ancient capital of Sri Lanka.
- This city was established around a cutting from the ‘tree of enlightenment’, the Buddha’s fig tree, brought there in the 3rd century B.C. by Sanghamitta, the founder of an order of Buddhist nuns.
- According to Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa,
- Ashoka had sent his son Mahinda, to Srilanka.
- He met king Devanampiya Tissa and preached the doctrine.
- In later period, the royal family and nobility of Sri Lanka strongly supported Buddhism.
- Art works featuring depictions of Avalokitesvara, the Bodhisattva of Mercy and Compassion, became popular.
- Ancient monuments like Buddhist temples, stupas etc. found.
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