Solution: Daily Problem Practice for 2021 History Optional [Ancient India: Day 6]

Solution: Daily Problem Practice for 2021 History Optional [Ancient India: Day 6]

Q. Identify the following places marked on the map and write a short note of about 30 words each. Locational hints for each of the places marked  on the map are given below seriatim. [2.5×6= 15]

(i) Neolithic site:


  • In Baluchistan, Pakistan.
  • A Neolithic and Calcolithic site.
  • Neolithic:
    • Small farming and pastoralist village:
    • Planned ancient farm villages.
    • mud brick house (later sun-dried brick)
    • bone tools,
    • a-ceramic.
  • Precursor of IVC.
  • It was later abandoned with Harappan urbanisation.
  • One of the earliest sites with evidence of farming (wheat and barley), herding and metallurgy.
  • One of the earliest cultivation of cotton.
  • Evidence of fishing.
  • Unique discovery:- Dental surgery and related medicinal activities.
  • Figurines of terracotta found.

(ii) Harappan site


  • In Rajkot district, Gujarat.
  • Mature Harappan, Late Harappan, and Palaeolithic site.
  • Houses:
    • Built on stone foundations.
    • No bricks were found.
  • Pottery:
    • Hard, red-ware.
  • Graffiti and Script:
    • Graffiti with signs from the Indus script, such as jar sign.
    • A short Harappan inscription on pots.
  • Copper or bronze flat axes were found.

(iii) Meghalithic site


  • In Haveri district, Karnataka.
  • Neolithic-chalcolithic and Megalithic site
  • Earliest use of iron in South India at Piklihal and Hallur.
  • Tools:
    • Polished tools
    • Microlith blades.
    • Ornaments made of carnelian, ceramic and gold found.
    • Chalcolithic blade tools
    • copper axes
    • fish hooks
    • Transition to the Iron Age period is marked by megaliths and iron implements.
  • Ash-mounds
  • Double urn burial
  • Agriculture – millet and horsegram, Green Gram
  • Pottery:
    • Early phase: Handmade and grey ware.
    • Later phase: wheel made, BRW
  • Herding – Cattle, Sheep, Goat.
  • Animal bones of cattle, sheep, goat and horse were found.
  • Habitation:
    • Circular floors made of stone chips and river sand.
    • Wattle and doab huts, post hole,
    • One house with circular fireplace and ash and charcoal.

(iv) PGW and NBPW site


  • In Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh.
  • Capital of Northern Panchala, Mahajanapada.
  • A brick fortification excavated.
  • PGW was first identified at Ahichchhatra.
  • PGW was followed by NBPW Period.
  • Panchala and Kushana coins have been found here.

(v) Chalcolithic site


  • In Gorakhpur district (UP).
  • Habitation:
    • Wattle-and-daub houses with post-holes and hearths.
  • Pottery:
    • BRW.
  • Artefacts:
    • Bone points;
    • pottery discs;
    • beads of glass, agate, and terracotta,
    • bone and terracotta dice;
    • glass bangles;
    • terracotta female figurines; animal figurines
    • polished stone axe.
    • Copper objects:- a ring and fishhook.
    • Alloy technique well known.
    • Iron objects also found.
  • Agriculture: 
    • Rice, wheat, pea, gram, khesari, oilseeds, jackfruit, sal, teak, tulsi, mango, bamboo.
  • Animal bone of wild and domesticated.

(vi) Buddhist cave

Ajanta Caves

  • In Aurangabad district, Maharashtra.
  • Buddhist Caves (2nd century BC to 7th century AD).
  • UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • The 7th century Chinese Pilgrim, Huen Tsang mentioned it.
  • Built in two phases-
    • Satavahana- Hinayana
    • Vakațaka- Mahayana
  • Elaborate caves.
  • Architecture:
    • Chaityas and viharas.
    • Early viharas – simpler, and lack shrines.
    • Later Viharas also had shrine at the rear centres, statue of  Buddha.
    • This change reflects the movement from Hinayana to Mahayana Buddhism.
  • Paintings:
    • Mural paintings.
    • Buddhist themes like Jataka stories.
    • Paintings use many colors.


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