Solution: Daily Problem Practice for 2021 History Optional [Ancient India: Day 6]
Q. Identify the following places marked on the map and write a short note of about 30 words each. Locational hints for each of the places marked on the map are given below seriatim. [2.5×6= 15]
(i) Neolithic site:
- In Baluchistan, Pakistan.
- A Neolithic and Calcolithic site.
- Small farming and pastoralist village:
- Planned ancient farm villages.
- mud brick house (later sun-dried brick)
- bone tools,
- Precursor of IVC.
- It was later abandoned with Harappan urbanisation.
- One of the earliest sites with evidence of farming (wheat and barley), herding and metallurgy.
- One of the earliest cultivation of cotton.
- Evidence of fishing.
- Unique discovery:- Dental surgery and related medicinal activities.
- Figurines of terracotta found.
(ii) Harappan site
- In Rajkot district, Gujarat.
- Mature Harappan, Late Harappan, and Palaeolithic site.
- Built on stone foundations.
- No bricks were found.
- Hard, red-ware.
- Graffiti and Script:
- Graffiti with signs from the Indus script, such as jar sign.
- A short Harappan inscription on pots.
- Copper or bronze flat axes were found.
(iii) Meghalithic site
- In Haveri district, Karnataka.
- Neolithic-chalcolithic and Megalithic site
- Earliest use of iron in South India at Piklihal and Hallur.
- Polished tools
- Microlith blades.
- Ornaments made of carnelian, ceramic and gold found.
- Chalcolithic blade tools
- copper axes
- fish hooks
- Transition to the Iron Age period is marked by megaliths and iron implements.
- Double urn burial
- Agriculture – millet and horsegram, Green Gram
- Early phase: Handmade and grey ware.
- Later phase: wheel made, BRW
- Herding – Cattle, Sheep, Goat.
- Animal bones of cattle, sheep, goat and horse were found.
- Circular floors made of stone chips and river sand.
- Wattle and doab huts, post hole,
- One house with circular fireplace and ash and charcoal.
(iv) PGW and NBPW site
- In Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh.
- Capital of Northern Panchala, Mahajanapada.
- A brick fortification excavated.
- PGW was first identified at Ahichchhatra.
- PGW was followed by NBPW Period.
- Panchala and Kushana coins have been found here.
(v) Chalcolithic site
- In Gorakhpur district (UP).
- Wattle-and-daub houses with post-holes and hearths.
- Bone points;
- pottery discs;
- beads of glass, agate, and terracotta,
- bone and terracotta dice;
- glass bangles;
- terracotta female figurines; animal figurines
- polished stone axe.
- Copper objects:- a ring and fishhook.
- Alloy technique well known.
- Iron objects also found.
- Rice, wheat, pea, gram, khesari, oilseeds, jackfruit, sal, teak, tulsi, mango, bamboo.
- Animal bone of wild and domesticated.
(vi) Buddhist cave
- In Aurangabad district, Maharashtra.
- Buddhist Caves (2nd century BC to 7th century AD).
- UNESCO World Heritage Site.
- The 7th century Chinese Pilgrim, Huen Tsang mentioned it.
- Built in two phases-
- Satavahana- Hinayana
- Vakațaka- Mahayana
- Elaborate caves.
- Chaityas and viharas.
- Early viharas – simpler, and lack shrines.
- Later Viharas also had shrine at the rear centres, statue of Buddha.
- This change reflects the movement from Hinayana to Mahayana Buddhism.
- Mural paintings.
- Buddhist themes like Jataka stories.
- Paintings use many colors.
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