Solution: Weekly Problem Practice For History Optional- 2022 [Ancient India: Week 1]

Solution: Weekly Problem Practice For History Optional- 2022 [Ancient India: Week 1]

Q. Identify the following places marked on the map and write a short note of about 30 words on each of them in your Answer sheet. Locational hints for each of the places marked on the map are given below seriatim: [2.5×20= 50 Marks]

(i) Paleolithic site


  • In Munger in Bihar.
  • Paleolithic and Mesolithic site.
  • A stone working site containing finished and semi-finished tools found.
  • The evidence for the construction of huts and temporary shelters found.
  • Apart from microliths, there are traces of numerous fire places found.
  • The raw material for making tools, i.e. stone, was probably heated before flaking.
  • The thin layer of Mesolithic habitation suggests that people did not live at this place for a long time.
  • No organic remains have been reported.

(ii) Neolithic site

Utnur/ Utnoor

  • In Adilabad district, Telngana.
  • Evidences of Ash-mounds, agriculture and cattle herding.
  • Bone tools,
  • Celts, microlithic blades, stone axes, handmade coarse pottery found.

(iii) Harappan site

Manda/ Akhnoor

  • In Akhnoor district, J&K on the bank of Chenab.
  • Mature and Late Harappan.
  • Northern most Harappan site.
  • Harappan and Late Harappan site.
  • BRW, red ware and grey ware.
  • Artefacts:
    • Bangles,
    • potshards with Harappan writings and
    • bone arrow heads.
  • Artefacts of Kushana period:- Pottery, terracotta figurines, bone arrow heads, iron daggers and copper rods.
  • Source of timber for IVC sites.
  • Akhnoor fort built by Raja Alam Singh in 1802.

(iv) IVC site


  • In Kutch district, Gujarat.
  • City scape consisted ‘citadel’, a ‘middle town’ and a ‘lower town’,
  • Water conservation system of channels and reservoirs built of stone.
  • Seven Hemispherical constructions found.
  • A coastal route existed linking Lothal and Dholavira to Sutkagan Dor on the Makran coast.
  • Findings:
    • Painted BRW
    • square stamp seals,
    • seals without Indus script,
    • Dholavira signboard: containing ten letters of Indus script. The inscription is the longest in the Indus script.

(v) Megalithic site


  • In Pudukkottai district, Tamilnadu.
  • Meghalithic and Jain Cave site.
  • Burials:
    • Stone circles,
    • Cist burials
    • urn burials,
  • Pottery, glass manufacturing site, iron objects,
  • Sittanavasal Cave is a Jain caves with painting and sculptures.
    • Temple-cave dated to Pallava King Mahendravarman I (580–630 AD).
    • Painting:
      • Mural painting
      • Fresco-secco technique
      • Painting depicts:
        • lotus pond with lotus flowers,
        • people collecting lotuses from the pond,
        • dancing figures,
        • fish, buffaloes, elephants etc.

(vi) PGW site


  • In Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh.
  • Capital of Northern Panchala, Mahajanapada.
  • A brick fortification excavated.
  • PGW was first identified at Ahichchhatra.
  • PGW was followed by NBPW Period.
  • Panchala and Kushana coins have been found here.

(vii) Ancient port

Arikamedu/ poduka

  • Near Puducherry.
  • Known as Poduka to the Romans.
  • Famous port during the sangam Age under Early Chola.
  • Bead making facility and trading with Roman.
  • Roman artifacts:
    • Amphorae bearing the mark of Roman pottery.
    • Roman lamps, glassware and gems.
    • Roman golden coins proves that India got a lot of gold in return of her export.

(viii) Pre-historic cave painting site


  • In Kumaon hills, Uttarakhand.
  • Lakhudiyar means one lakh caves.
  • Prehistoric paintings.
    • human (stick-like forms), hand-linked dancing human
    • animal- fox, long-snouted animal, lizard etc.
    • geometric patterns, wavy lines, dots
    • in white, black and red ochre
    • some superimposition of paintings.

(ix) Mesolithic site


  • In Burdman district, West Bengal.
  • Mesolithic stone tools made of quartz, some of chert and chalcedony, were found here.
    • Birbhanpur industry dominated with big flakes and blade tools.
    • Main microlith type- Lunate type.
    • Triangle and trapezes absent.
  • Both a habitation and a factory site.
  • Post holes found here.
  • No hearth, bone or human burials found.

(x) Neolithic site


  • Near Guwahati (Assam).
  • A Neolithic site.
  • Excavations:
    • Stone celts, charcoal, potshards and round-butted axes.
  • Pottery:
    • Handmade brown, buff, and grey wares, some with cord impressions.
  • The pottery of Sarutaro agrees well with that of Daojali Hading in Assam.

(xi) Ancient education and commercial centre


  • In Rawalpindi district, Pakistan.
  • Ancient political, commercial and cultural centre.
  • Commercial centre:
    • At junction of 3 major trade routes: West Asia, northern India and Central Asia.
    • Centre of artisanal production.
  • Centre of education:
    • Amongst the earliest universities.
    • Many do not consider it a university as:
      • teachers did not have official membership of particular colleges, and
      • there was no purpose-built lecture halls and residential quarters, like Nalanda University.
    • Charaka, Chanakya, Jivaka, Panini etc are related to Taxila University.
  • Political centre:
    • Capital of Gandhara satrapy, under Achaemenian.
    • Alexander received submission of ruler of Taxila, Ambhi.
    • Taxila became a provincial capital of Mauryas.
    • Capital of Indo-Parthian Kingdom, and one of the capitals of Kushanas.
  • The Chinese pilgrims Fa Hian (5th century) and Hieun Tsang (7th century) visited Taxila. In ruin during Huen Tsang.

(xii) Political and cultural centre


  • In Bijapur district, Karnataka.
  • It is east of Pattadakal, while Badami is to the west of both.
  • First capital of western Chalukyas (later moved to Badami).
  • Chalukyan architecture, with many stone temples dating from 5th century CE.
    • Earliest structural temples.
    • Among the seventy temples found at Aihole, four are important.
      • Ladh Khan temple is flat-roofed structure consisting of a pillared hall.
      • Durga temple resembles a Buddha Chaitya.
      • Huchimalligudi temple.
      • The Jain temple at Meguti.
  • Caves: 
    • Ravana Phadi cave- rocks cut temples.
    • Jain cave temple
    • A Buddhist Chaitya Cave- partly rockcut structure.
  • Aihole inscription:
    • Aihole Prasasti in Meguti Temple
    • Composed by Ravikirti, the court poet of Pulakesin II in 634 A.D.
    • In Sanskrit language and old Karnataka script
    • Detailed account of Pulakesin II’s exploit against his neighbouring kingdoms like the Pallavas.
    • Describes the victory of Pulakesin II against Harshavardhana.

(xiii) Buddhist site


  • Located near Varanasi, U.P.
  • In deer park of Sarnath, Buddha first taught the Dharma (Dhammachakkappavattana  Sutta) after attaining enlightenment.
  • One of four most important Buddhist pilgrimage sites, the other three being Kushinagar, Bodh Gaya, and Lumbini.
  • Also the birthplace the eleventh Tirthankara of Jainism, and a temple dedicated to him.
  • Chinese pilgrim Xuan  Zang  visited  and  found  monasteries  and monks studying the  Hinayana and mentions stupa built by Ashoka.
  • Center for the arts, which reached its zenith during the Gupta period (Sarnath school).
  • Rich in Buddhist antiquities.
    • Dhamek Stupa:
      • a solid cylinder of bricks and stone.
      • wall  covered  with  carved  figures  of  humans  and  birds and inscriptions in the Brahmi script.
      • An Ashoka pillar with an edict and lion capital stands near the Stupa.
  • Beautiful sculptures found:
    • A colossal image of a Bodhisattava,
    • a number of images of Buddha and Buddhist deities,
    • Images of Hindu gods as Shiva and Brahma,
    • Lion capital on Ashokan pillar (official Emblem of India)
      • carved out of a single block of polished sandstone
      • mounted on an abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a horse, a bull, and a lion, separated by intervening spoked chariot-wheels.
      • The wheel on the capital is the model for the one in the flag of India.
  • On pillar, an inscription of one of the Edicts of Ashoka reads, “No one shall cause division in the order of monks”.

(xiv) Neolithic site


  • In Saran district of Bihar.
  • Neolithic, Chalcolithic and Iron Age settlements.
  • Neolithic period was earlier than 2500 B.C.
  • Practiced agriculture with evidence of wheat, rice, mung, masur, peas found.
  • The agricultural tools were made of stone and bone.
  • Bone tools are special feature
  • They practised hunting also.
  • Bones of domesticated and wild animals are found.
  • People lived in wattle and daub huts, circular in plan.
  • Microliths are also found.
  • Pottery:
    • Hand-made, ‘red ware’ and BRW.
    • Post firing painting on pottery.
  • Chalcolithic culture: 1600 BCE
    • BRW pottery found.
    • Two phases:
      • The first phase is without iron.
      • Second has iron without NBPW.
  • Later period shows the emergence of the N.B.P.W. culture.

(xv) Sun temple site


  • Near Bhubaneshwar in Odissa.
  • It is famous for the Sun Temple which was built in 9th century ad was reconstructed by the Ganga King Narsinngh Dev in the 13th century.
  • The temple is conceived as a gigantic sun chariot with 12 pairs of exquisitely ornamented wheels.
  • The colossal temple originally consisted of a sanctum with
    • a curvilinear Shikhara,
    • a Jagamohana (mandapa) and
    • a detached dancing hall built in the same axis,
  • A number of subsidiary shrines and structures- all enclosed within a compound wall with 3 entrance gates.
  • Many sculptures of birds and animals, deities and Apsaras and Terracotta figurines depicting sensuality are depicted in the temple. They represent Khajuraho style of sculpture.
  • Konark temple was called black pagoda by Portuguese.

(xvi) Ancient capital city


  • In Kapilvastu ditrict, Nepal (25 km northwest of Lumbini).
  • UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Capital of the Shakya kingdom.
  • King Suddhodana and Queen Mayadevi of Shakya kingdom gave birth to Gautam Buddha.
  • Chinese pilgrims Faxian and Xuanzang made pilgrimages to the site .
  • Ancient trade centre.

(xvii) Site of school of art


  • In Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh.
  • Meghalithic, BRW and NBPW site.
  • Inscription in Maurya Brahmi found.
  • Dhanyakataka – capital of Satavahanas.
  • Buddhist stupa:
    • Buddhist Stupa and Mahachaityas with marble and limestone sculptures.
    • Its carved panels tell the story of Buddha.
  • Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang visited in 7th century.
  • Ancient School of Arts:
    • Flourished  for  nearly  six  centuries commencing  from  200-100  BC.
    • Patronized first by the Satavahanas and later by the Ikshvakus.
    • Some Buddhist sculptures with Greco-Roman influence.

(xviii) Chalcolithic site


  • In Pune district, Maharashtra.
  • Post-Harappan Chalcolithic site.
  • Multiple cultural phases:- Jorwe culture and Malwa Culture found.
  • Habitation:
    • Early chalcolithic:
      • Mud and circular houses.
      • Storage pits.
      • Biggest houses with five room was of the ruling chief.
      • Granary.
    • Later Chalcolithic:
      • Fortified wall around the settled area.
  • Pottery:
    • Red with black designs.
  • Artefacts:
    • Stone tools for cutting plants, meat etc.
    • Few coppers tools and ornaments found.
      • Ornaments:- beads, bangles, and anklets. Later gold also.
      • Tools and weapons such as drills, fish hooks and arrowheads.
    • Beads of terracotta, semi-precious stones ivory, sea shells.
    • Terracotta figurines:-  toys, bull, female goddess etc.
  • Trade with other parts of the country.
  • Agriculture:
    • Wheat, barley, lentils, peas, gram and beans.
  • Bones of wild and domesticates.

(xix) Pre-Harappan site


  • In Hanumangarh district, Rajasthan, on bank of Ghaggar.
  • Pre-Harappan and Harappan.
  • Pre-Harappan:
    • used copper and produced pottery,
    • no writing system,
    • lack the orderly layout,
    • used sun dried bricks.
  • Harappan:
    • Cemetery and a fortified citadel.
    • lower town also fortified.
    • use of mud and burnt bricks
    • grid-pattern of town planning,
    • Burnt bricks were used in drains, wells, bathing platforms, fire-altar.
  • Other feature and findings:
    • Pottery:
      • for household, religious and burial purposes,
      • wheel made red pottery.
    • Unique fire altars:- suggest fire worship
    • Ploughed field
    • Rectangular as well as cylindrical seals found.
    • Terracotta bangles, bull etc. are found.
    • Pit burial and urn burial has been found.

(xx) Mesolithic site


  • In Barmer district, Rajasthan.
  • It has two phases.
    • First phase is Mesolithic and characterized by the presence of microliths.
    • The second phase has yielded wheel-made pottery, some pecies of iron, glass bead along with microliths.
  • Westernmost mesolithic site in India.
  • Circular arrangement of stones on the ground indicate habitation structure.
  • Fire hearts, charred bones indicate settlement of mesolithic culture.
  • Stone working site found.

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