Solution: Weekly Problem Practice For History Optional- 2022 [Ancient India: Week 1]
Q. Identify the following places marked on the map and write a short note of about 30 words on each of them in your Answer sheet. Locational hints for each of the places marked on the map are given below seriatim: [2.5×20= 50 Marks]
(i) Paleolithic site
- In Munger in Bihar.
- Paleolithic and Mesolithic site.
- A stone working site containing finished and semi-finished tools found.
- The evidence for the construction of huts and temporary shelters found.
- Apart from microliths, there are traces of numerous fire places found.
- The raw material for making tools, i.e. stone, was probably heated before flaking.
- The thin layer of Mesolithic habitation suggests that people did not live at this place for a long time.
- No organic remains have been reported.
(ii) Neolithic site
- In Adilabad district, Telngana.
- Evidences of Ash-mounds, agriculture and cattle herding.
- Bone tools,
- Celts, microlithic blades, stone axes, handmade coarse pottery found.
(iii) Harappan site
- In Akhnoor district, J&K on the bank of Chenab.
- Mature and Late Harappan.
- Northern most Harappan site.
- Harappan and Late Harappan site.
- BRW, red ware and grey ware.
- potshards with Harappan writings and
- bone arrow heads.
- Artefacts of Kushana period:- Pottery, terracotta figurines, bone arrow heads, iron daggers and copper rods.
- Source of timber for IVC sites.
- Akhnoor fort built by Raja Alam Singh in 1802.
(iv) IVC site
- In Kutch district, Gujarat.
- City scape consisted ‘citadel’, a ‘middle town’ and a ‘lower town’,
- Water conservation system of channels and reservoirs built of stone.
- Seven Hemispherical constructions found.
- A coastal route existed linking Lothal and Dholavira to Sutkagan Dor on the Makran coast.
- Painted BRW
- square stamp seals,
- seals without Indus script,
- Dholavira signboard: containing ten letters of Indus script. The inscription is the longest in the Indus script.
(v) Megalithic site
- In Pudukkottai district, Tamilnadu.
- Meghalithic and Jain Cave site.
- Stone circles,
- Cist burials
- urn burials,
- Pottery, glass manufacturing site, iron objects,
- Sittanavasal Cave is a Jain caves with painting and sculptures.
- Temple-cave dated to Pallava King Mahendravarman I (580–630 AD).
- Mural painting
- Fresco-secco technique
- Painting depicts:
- lotus pond with lotus flowers,
- people collecting lotuses from the pond,
- dancing figures,
- fish, buffaloes, elephants etc.
(vi) PGW site
- In Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh.
- Capital of Northern Panchala, Mahajanapada.
- A brick fortification excavated.
- PGW was first identified at Ahichchhatra.
- PGW was followed by NBPW Period.
- Panchala and Kushana coins have been found here.
(vii) Ancient port
- Near Puducherry.
- Known as Poduka to the Romans.
- Famous port during the sangam Age under Early Chola.
- Bead making facility and trading with Roman.
- Roman artifacts:
- Amphorae bearing the mark of Roman pottery.
- Roman lamps, glassware and gems.
- Roman golden coins proves that India got a lot of gold in return of her export.
(viii) Pre-historic cave painting site
- In Kumaon hills, Uttarakhand.
- Lakhudiyar means one lakh caves.
- Prehistoric paintings.
- human (stick-like forms), hand-linked dancing human
- animal- fox, long-snouted animal, lizard etc.
- geometric patterns, wavy lines, dots
- in white, black and red ochre
- some superimposition of paintings.
(ix) Mesolithic site
- In Burdman district, West Bengal.
- Mesolithic stone tools made of quartz, some of chert and chalcedony, were found here.
- Birbhanpur industry dominated with big flakes and blade tools.
- Main microlith type- Lunate type.
- Triangle and trapezes absent.
- Both a habitation and a factory site.
- Post holes found here.
- No hearth, bone or human burials found.
(x) Neolithic site
- Near Guwahati (Assam).
- A Neolithic site.
- Stone celts, charcoal, potshards and round-butted axes.
- Handmade brown, buff, and grey wares, some with cord impressions.
- The pottery of Sarutaro agrees well with that of Daojali Hading in Assam.
(xi) Ancient education and commercial centre
- In Rawalpindi district, Pakistan.
- Ancient political, commercial and cultural centre.
- Commercial centre:
- At junction of 3 major trade routes: West Asia, northern India and Central Asia.
- Centre of artisanal production.
- Centre of education:
- Amongst the earliest universities.
- Many do not consider it a university as:
- teachers did not have official membership of particular colleges, and
- there was no purpose-built lecture halls and residential quarters, like Nalanda University.
- Charaka, Chanakya, Jivaka, Panini etc are related to Taxila University.
- Political centre:
- Capital of Gandhara satrapy, under Achaemenian.
- Alexander received submission of ruler of Taxila, Ambhi.
- Taxila became a provincial capital of Mauryas.
- Capital of Indo-Parthian Kingdom, and one of the capitals of Kushanas.
- The Chinese pilgrims Fa Hian (5th century) and Hieun Tsang (7th century) visited Taxila. In ruin during Huen Tsang.
(xii) Political and cultural centre
- In Bijapur district, Karnataka.
- It is east of Pattadakal, while Badami is to the west of both.
- First capital of western Chalukyas (later moved to Badami).
- Chalukyan architecture, with many stone temples dating from 5th century CE.
- Earliest structural temples.
- Among the seventy temples found at Aihole, four are important.
- Ladh Khan temple is flat-roofed structure consisting of a pillared hall.
- Durga temple resembles a Buddha Chaitya.
- Huchimalligudi temple.
- The Jain temple at Meguti.
- Ravana Phadi cave- rocks cut temples.
- Jain cave temple
- A Buddhist Chaitya Cave- partly rockcut structure.
- Aihole inscription:
- Aihole Prasasti in Meguti Temple
- Composed by Ravikirti, the court poet of Pulakesin II in 634 A.D.
- In Sanskrit language and old Karnataka script
- Detailed account of Pulakesin II’s exploit against his neighbouring kingdoms like the Pallavas.
- Describes the victory of Pulakesin II against Harshavardhana.
(xiii) Buddhist site
- Located near Varanasi, U.P.
- In deer park of Sarnath, Buddha first taught the Dharma (Dhammachakkappavattana Sutta) after attaining enlightenment.
- One of four most important Buddhist pilgrimage sites, the other three being Kushinagar, Bodh Gaya, and Lumbini.
- Also the birthplace the eleventh Tirthankara of Jainism, and a temple dedicated to him.
- Chinese pilgrim Xuan Zang visited and found monasteries and monks studying the Hinayana and mentions stupa built by Ashoka.
- Center for the arts, which reached its zenith during the Gupta period (Sarnath school).
- Rich in Buddhist antiquities.
- Dhamek Stupa:
- a solid cylinder of bricks and stone.
- wall covered with carved figures of humans and birds and inscriptions in the Brahmi script.
- An Ashoka pillar with an edict and lion capital stands near the Stupa.
- Dhamek Stupa:
- Beautiful sculptures found:
- A colossal image of a Bodhisattava,
- a number of images of Buddha and Buddhist deities,
- Images of Hindu gods as Shiva and Brahma,
- Lion capital on Ashokan pillar (official Emblem of India)
- carved out of a single block of polished sandstone
- mounted on an abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a horse, a bull, and a lion, separated by intervening spoked chariot-wheels.
- The wheel on the capital is the model for the one in the flag of India.
- On pillar, an inscription of one of the Edicts of Ashoka reads, “No one shall cause division in the order of monks”.
(xiv) Neolithic site
- In Saran district of Bihar.
- Neolithic, Chalcolithic and Iron Age settlements.
- Neolithic period was earlier than 2500 B.C.
- Practiced agriculture with evidence of wheat, rice, mung, masur, peas found.
- The agricultural tools were made of stone and bone.
- Bone tools are special feature
- They practised hunting also.
- Bones of domesticated and wild animals are found.
- People lived in wattle and daub huts, circular in plan.
- Microliths are also found.
- Hand-made, ‘red ware’ and BRW.
- Post firing painting on pottery.
- Chalcolithic culture: 1600 BCE
- BRW pottery found.
- Two phases:
- The first phase is without iron.
- Second has iron without NBPW.
- Later period shows the emergence of the N.B.P.W. culture.
(xv) Sun temple site
- Near Bhubaneshwar in Odissa.
- It is famous for the Sun Temple which was built in 9th century ad was reconstructed by the Ganga King Narsinngh Dev in the 13th century.
- The temple is conceived as a gigantic sun chariot with 12 pairs of exquisitely ornamented wheels.
- The colossal temple originally consisted of a sanctum with
- a curvilinear Shikhara,
- a Jagamohana (mandapa) and
- a detached dancing hall built in the same axis,
- A number of subsidiary shrines and structures- all enclosed within a compound wall with 3 entrance gates.
- Many sculptures of birds and animals, deities and Apsaras and Terracotta figurines depicting sensuality are depicted in the temple. They represent Khajuraho style of sculpture.
- Konark temple was called black pagoda by Portuguese.
(xvi) Ancient capital city
- In Kapilvastu ditrict, Nepal (25 km northwest of Lumbini).
- UNESCO World Heritage Site.
- Capital of the Shakya kingdom.
- King Suddhodana and Queen Mayadevi of Shakya kingdom gave birth to Gautam Buddha.
- Chinese pilgrims Faxian and Xuanzang made pilgrimages to the site .
- Ancient trade centre.
(xvii) Site of school of art
- In Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh.
- Meghalithic, BRW and NBPW site.
- Inscription in Maurya Brahmi found.
- Dhanyakataka – capital of Satavahanas.
- Buddhist stupa:
- Buddhist Stupa and Mahachaityas with marble and limestone sculptures.
- Its carved panels tell the story of Buddha.
- Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang visited in 7th century.
- Ancient School of Arts:
- Flourished for nearly six centuries commencing from 200-100 BC.
- Patronized first by the Satavahanas and later by the Ikshvakus.
- Some Buddhist sculptures with Greco-Roman influence.
(xviii) Chalcolithic site
- In Pune district, Maharashtra.
- Post-Harappan Chalcolithic site.
- Multiple cultural phases:- Jorwe culture and Malwa Culture found.
- Early chalcolithic:
- Mud and circular houses.
- Storage pits.
- Biggest houses with five room was of the ruling chief.
- Later Chalcolithic:
- Fortified wall around the settled area.
- Early chalcolithic:
- Red with black designs.
- Stone tools for cutting plants, meat etc.
- Few coppers tools and ornaments found.
- Ornaments:- beads, bangles, and anklets. Later gold also.
- Tools and weapons such as drills, fish hooks and arrowheads.
- Beads of terracotta, semi-precious stones ivory, sea shells.
- Terracotta figurines:- toys, bull, female goddess etc.
- Trade with other parts of the country.
- Wheat, barley, lentils, peas, gram and beans.
- Bones of wild and domesticates.
(xix) Pre-Harappan site
- In Hanumangarh district, Rajasthan, on bank of Ghaggar.
- Pre-Harappan and Harappan.
- used copper and produced pottery,
- no writing system,
- lack the orderly layout,
- used sun dried bricks.
- Cemetery and a fortified citadel.
- lower town also fortified.
- use of mud and burnt bricks
- grid-pattern of town planning,
- Burnt bricks were used in drains, wells, bathing platforms, fire-altar.
- Other feature and findings:
- for household, religious and burial purposes,
- wheel made red pottery.
- Unique fire altars:- suggest fire worship
- Ploughed field
- Rectangular as well as cylindrical seals found.
- Terracotta bangles, bull etc. are found.
- Pit burial and urn burial has been found.
(xx) Mesolithic site
- In Barmer district, Rajasthan.
- It has two phases.
- First phase is Mesolithic and characterized by the presence of microliths.
- The second phase has yielded wheel-made pottery, some pecies of iron, glass bead along with microliths.
- Westernmost mesolithic site in India.
- Circular arrangement of stones on the ground indicate habitation structure.
- Fire hearts, charred bones indicate settlement of mesolithic culture.
- Stone working site found.