History Optional Mains Paper II: 2021 [Section A- World History]


Q.5 Critically examine the following statements in about 150 words each : 10×5=50

(a) There were many reasons why the industrial revolution first happened in England. [10 Marks]

(b) Napoleon’s continental system may be reckoned as the greatest blunder and may be described as a “monument of misdirected energy”. [10 Marks]

(c) The Chartist Movement failed to achieve its stated objective, but succeeded in seeding the idea that a representative democracy should include all citizens. [10 Marks]

(d) During the Cold War, some important leaders of the Non-Aligned Movement wanted to keep the movement away from the military blocs. [10 Marks]

(e) The Arab countries looked up to Nasser as a leader who could withstand the pressure exerted by Western countries on Egypt to make peace with Israel. [10 Marks]


(a) What was “enlightened” about the Age of Enlightenment? [20 Marks]

(b) What were the causes and consequences of the revolutionary upsurger of the 1840s in Europe? [20 Marks]

(c) The white-minority government of South Africa treated the natives very badly by denying them fundamental rights and made Apartheid ad official policy. How were the people able to end Apartheid policy and establish a transitional rule? [10 Marks]


(a) The rise of nationalism across nations shattered the chains which held together the empires of modern Europe. Discuss. [20 Marks]

(b) In the American civil war, the victory of the North had many consequences. Some of them were direct and obvious. However, its indirect effects on American development were perhaps even more important. Comment. [20 Marks]

(c) Revolutions, whether in Russia (1917) or in China (1949), are a disastrous way of transforming a country. Comment. [10 Marks]


(a) Europe was at war with itself in the first half of the twentieth century with a long cease-fire. Comment. [20 Marks]

(b) The impact of the end of the Cold War and the emergence of the US as the lone superpower has been both, good and bad. Discuss. [20 Marks]

(c) Do you think that the United Nations Organisation had played a significant role in resolving international disputes and ensuring peace in the world? [10 Marks]

Note: All Questions are from our study materials.

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