Solution: Daily Problem Practice for 2023 History Optional [Ancient India: Day 2]

Q. Identify the following places marked on the map and write a short note of about 30 words on each of them in your Answer sheet. Locational hints for each of the places marked on the map are given below seriatim: [2.5×8= 20 Marks]

(i) Ancient port


  • In Tamluk near the mouth of the Ganges in Midnapur district of West Bengal.
  • Emporium of trade.
  • Connected to Taxila by land and river on one hand and with south-east Asia by sea on the other.
  • Antiquities of Chalcolithic period and NBPW phase found.
  • Discovery of Roulette ware and red polished ware of Roman type indicates the trade contact with Roman.
  • Urban character is proved by discovery of terracotta figurines, coins, beads or semi-precious stones etc.

(ii) Painted Grey Ware site


  • In Etah district, Uttar Pradesh.
  • 3 Stages: OCP, BRW, PGW, NBPW
  • From village to town.
  • Habitation:
    • Mud houses with wooden posts.
    • Wattle-and-daub houses.
    • Later on, mud brick
  • Agriculture: 
    • Evidence of wheat, barley, gram etc.
    • Two crops a year.
    • Agricultural implements found.
    • Agriculture tools of iron first came in NBPW.
  • Bone and ivory tools like arrowhead, beads, comb, bangle etc found.
  • Horse remains found.

(iii) Megalithic site


  • In Tuticorin District, Tamil Nadu.
  • Urn burial site. Earthenware urns.
  • Bronze objects, iron objects, potsherds.
  • Skeletal remains inside the urns are in crouched position.
  • Two examples of double burial.
  • Pottery:
    • BRW, red ware and black ware.
    • Graffiti on pottery.
  • Iron implements:- arrowheads, spearheads and axe.
  • Copper ornaments found.
  • Rice husk and cloth impression on Iron sword.
  • A potter’s kiln (industrial activity) found in habitational site.

(iv) Chalcolithic site


  • In west Nimar district, MP.
  • Chalcolithic and Late Harappan Site.
  • Navdatoli is the largest settlement of Malwa culture.
  • Habitation:
    • Circular or rectangular shape.
    • Circular wattle-and-daub houses, post holes
    • Floors plastered with lime.
    • Ancient village inhabited through four stages.
  • Chulhas and storage jars found in houses.
  • Pottery:
    • BRW, grey ware with painted
  • Domestication of animals.
  • Microliths found.

(v) Ancient education centre


  • In Jajpur district, Odisha (on Langudi hills).
  • Buddhist seat of learning.
  • Mentioned in the travelogues of Chinese traveler Huien Tsang.
  • Excavation reveals:
    • stupas
    • Buddhist rock-cut sculptures
    • pillars,
    • Brahmi inscription,
    • terracotta seals and
    • NBPW.

(vi) Ancient Cave site


  • In Kumaon hills, Uttarakhand.
  • Lakhudiyar means one lakh caves.
  • Prehistoric paintings.
    • human (stick-like forms), hand-linked dancing human
    • animal- fox, long-snouted animal, lizard etc.
    • geometric patterns, wavy lines, dots
    • in white, black and red ochre
    • some superimposition of paintings.

(vii) Ancient educational and political centre


  • In Rawalpindi district, Pakistan.
  • Ancient political, commercial and cultural centre.
  • Commercial centre:
    • At junction of 3 major trade routes: West Asia, northern India and Central Asia.
    • Centre of artisanal production.
  • Centre of education:
    • Amongst the earliest universities.
    • Many do not consider it a university as:
      • teachers did not have official membership of particular colleges, and
      • there was no purpose-built lecture halls and residential quarters, like Nalanda University.
    • Charaka, Chanakya, Jivaka, Panini etc are related to Taxila University.
  • Political centre:
    • Capital of Gandhara satrapy, under Achaemenian.
    • Alexander received submission of ruler of Taxila, Ambhi.
    • Taxila became a provincial capital of Mauryas.
    • Capital of Indo-Parthian Kingdom, and one of the capitals of Kushanas.
  • The Chinese pilgrims Fa Hian (5th century) and Hieun Tsang (7th century) visited Taxila. In ruin during Huen Tsang.

(viii) Ancient capital city


  • In Bhavnagar district (Saurashtra), Gujarat.
  • Capital of the Maitraka Dynasty (480-775 CE).
  • Established by the founder of the dynasty, Senapati Bhatarka.
  • Centre of learning, Buddhist monasteries.
  • Visited by the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang and Yijingin 7th century.
  • Second Jaina council under Devardhi held in 6th century CE when Jaina scriptures assumed their present form.


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