Q. Identify the following places marked on the map and write a short note of about 30 words on each of them in your Answer sheet. Locational hints for each of the places marked on the map are given below seriatim: [2.5×8= 20 Marks]
(i) Ancient port
- In Tamluk near the mouth of the Ganges in Midnapur district of West Bengal.
- Emporium of trade.
- Connected to Taxila by land and river on one hand and with south-east Asia by sea on the other.
- Antiquities of Chalcolithic period and NBPW phase found.
- Discovery of Roulette ware and red polished ware of Roman type indicates the trade contact with Roman.
- Urban character is proved by discovery of terracotta figurines, coins, beads or semi-precious stones etc.
(ii) Painted Grey Ware site
- In Etah district, Uttar Pradesh.
- 3 Stages: OCP, BRW, PGW, NBPW
- From village to town.
- Mud houses with wooden posts.
- Wattle-and-daub houses.
- Later on, mud brick
- Evidence of wheat, barley, gram etc.
- Two crops a year.
- Agricultural implements found.
- Agriculture tools of iron first came in NBPW.
- Bone and ivory tools like arrowhead, beads, comb, bangle etc found.
- Horse remains found.
(iii) Megalithic site
- In Tuticorin District, Tamil Nadu.
- Urn burial site. Earthenware urns.
- Bronze objects, iron objects, potsherds.
- Skeletal remains inside the urns are in crouched position.
- Two examples of double burial.
- BRW, red ware and black ware.
- Graffiti on pottery.
- Iron implements:- arrowheads, spearheads and axe.
- Copper ornaments found.
- Rice husk and cloth impression on Iron sword.
- A potter’s kiln (industrial activity) found in habitational site.
(iv) Chalcolithic site
- In west Nimar district, MP.
- Chalcolithic and Late Harappan Site.
- Navdatoli is the largest settlement of Malwa culture.
- Circular or rectangular shape.
- Circular wattle-and-daub houses, post holes
- Floors plastered with lime.
- Ancient village inhabited through four stages.
- Chulhas and storage jars found in houses.
- BRW, grey ware with painted
- Domestication of animals.
- Microliths found.
(v) Ancient education centre
- In Jajpur district, Odisha (on Langudi hills).
- Buddhist seat of learning.
- Mentioned in the travelogues of Chinese traveler Huien Tsang.
- Excavation reveals:
- Buddhist rock-cut sculptures
- Brahmi inscription,
- terracotta seals and
(vi) Ancient Cave site
- In Kumaon hills, Uttarakhand.
- Lakhudiyar means one lakh caves.
- Prehistoric paintings.
- human (stick-like forms), hand-linked dancing human
- animal- fox, long-snouted animal, lizard etc.
- geometric patterns, wavy lines, dots
- in white, black and red ochre
- some superimposition of paintings.
(vii) Ancient educational and political centre
- In Rawalpindi district, Pakistan.
- Ancient political, commercial and cultural centre.
- Commercial centre:
- At junction of 3 major trade routes: West Asia, northern India and Central Asia.
- Centre of artisanal production.
- Centre of education:
- Amongst the earliest universities.
- Many do not consider it a university as:
- teachers did not have official membership of particular colleges, and
- there was no purpose-built lecture halls and residential quarters, like Nalanda University.
- Charaka, Chanakya, Jivaka, Panini etc are related to Taxila University.
- Political centre:
- Capital of Gandhara satrapy, under Achaemenian.
- Alexander received submission of ruler of Taxila, Ambhi.
- Taxila became a provincial capital of Mauryas.
- Capital of Indo-Parthian Kingdom, and one of the capitals of Kushanas.
- The Chinese pilgrims Fa Hian (5th century) and Hieun Tsang (7th century) visited Taxila. In ruin during Huen Tsang.
(viii) Ancient capital city
- In Bhavnagar district (Saurashtra), Gujarat.
- Capital of the Maitraka Dynasty (480-775 CE).
- Established by the founder of the dynasty, Senapati Bhatarka.
- Centre of learning, Buddhist monasteries.
- Visited by the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang and Yijingin 7th century.
- Second Jaina council under Devardhi held in 6th century CE when Jaina scriptures assumed their present form.
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