Solution: Daily Problem Practice for 2023 History Optional [Ancient India: Day 4]

Q. Identify the following places marked on the map and write a short note of about 30 words on each of them in your Answer sheet. Locational hints for each of the places marked on the map are given below seriatim: [2.5×8= 20 Marks]

(i) Petroglyph site

Kothaiyurumbu, Dindigul 

  • In Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu.
  • Several petroglyphs, which are engravings on rocks, have been found on a hill situated Kothaiyurumbu village in Dindigul in Tamil Nadu.
  • They are on two rocks adjacent to a Murugan temple which is in ruins on top of the Kothaiyurumbu hill.
  • The engraving could be dated to Iron Age (circa 1,600 BCE to circa 600 BCE) because he found a lot of black and red ware, and iron slag scattered around the boulders with the petroglyphs.
  • They were similar to the petroglyphs found at Perumukkal village in Villupuram district.

(ii) Ancient Mosque site

Methala (Cheramaan Juma Mosque)

  • The Cheramaan Juma Mosque is a mosque in Methala, Kodungallur Taluk, Thrissur District in Kerala. ©
  • It is known by various other names also such as Cherman Perumal Masjid, Cheraman Palli, Cheraman Mosque.
  • It was built in 629 AD (during the last years of the life of Prophet Mohammed), which makes it the oldest mosque in the Indian subcontinent which is still in use.
  • It was built by Malik Deenar, Persian companion of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, on the orders of the successor of Cheraman Perumal, the Chera King.
  • The mosque was constructed in Kerala style with hanging lamps.
    • Ancient Kerala-style oil lamp is said to have been kept burning continuously since the inception of the Masjid.
  • It was rebuilt in 11th century.
  • The mosque was destroyed by the Portuguese in 1504 when Lopo Soares de Albergaria attacked the port of Kodungallur.
    • The old building was built some time after the 1504 attack.
  • The restoration of this historic mosque is being carried out as part of the Muziris Heritage Project.

(iii) Ancient Capital city


  • In Shravasti district, U.P.
  • Centre of Buddhists and Jainas.
  • Capital of the Kosala Mahajanapada during 6th century BC.
  • On the northern trade routes.
  • Many ancient idols, inscriptions, stupas and viharas were found.
  • Birthplace of the Tirthankara Sambhavanath in Jainism.
  • The Chinese Pilgrim Xuanzang found the city in ruins.
  • PGW and NBPW site.
  • Structural remains at PGW levels: wattle-and-daub and mud huts.

(iv) Famous inscription site

Uttaramerur Inscription

  • In Kanchipuram district, Tamilnadu.
  • Originally existed as a Brahmin settlement. Pallava king Nandivarman II (720–796 CE) established it as a brahamdeya village.
  • Inscription on granite stones of the temple dedicated to Shiva (during rule of Parantaka Chola) throw light on the functioning of Chola’s village administration particularly Sabha, the assembly of Brahmin village and shows autonomy enjoyed by villages during Cholas.

(v) Ancient political centre


  • In Bogra District, Bangladesh.
  • Also called Pundranagar, the capital city of ancient Pundra kingdom.
  • Provincial capital of the Mauryans, the Guptas, the Palas.
  • Artefacts:
    • Silver punch marked coins,
    • copper cast coins,
    • Gupta period coins,
    • shards,
    • terracotta plaques etc.
    • Buddha stone sculpture,
    • Buddha bronze sculpture
    • Lokesvara stone sculpture – blending of Vishnu and Avalokitsvara,
    • sand stone door-frames,
    • pillars and lintels.

(vi) Temple site

Martand Sun Temple

  • Near Anantnag, J&K.
  • Dedicated to Surya and built during the 8th century CE. Now in ruins.
  • Built by Lalitaditya of the karkota dynasty.
  • Stands in the middle of a large courtyard enclosed by a cellular peristyle, having fluted columns.
  • The temple proper contains grabhagriha, anatrala and closed mandapa, approached by a grand flight of steps.
  • Exteriorly, the sanctum is three ratha in plan.
  • It is entered on the west with a double chambered gateway that shares the width of the main temple.

(vii) Lost Port

Puhar/ Pumpuhar/ Kaveripattinam 

  • In Nagapattinam district, Tamilnadu.
  • Sea port of Cholas during the Sangam age.
  • Centre of trade- foreign trade.
  • Capital of the early Chola kings.
  • Near Kaveri River.
  • Mentioned in the Periplus of Ereythrean Sea and Silapathikaram.
  • Medieval Chola coins found:- continued to be an important port in later times as well.
  • Ancient Pottery found.

(viii) Ancient school of art


  • In Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh.
  • Meghalithic, BRW and NBPW site.
  • Inscription in Maurya Brahmi found.
  • Dhanyakataka – capital of Satavahanas.
  • Buddhist stupa:
    • Buddhist Stupa and Mahachaityas with marble and limestone sculptures.
    • Its carved panels tell the story of Buddha.
  • Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang visited in 7th century.
  • Ancient School of Arts:
    • Flourished  for  nearly  six  centuries commencing  from  200-100  BC.
    • Patronized first by the Satavahanas and later by the Ikshvakus.
    • Some Buddhist sculptures with Greco-Roman influence.


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