Q. Identify the following places marked on the map and write a short note of about 30 words on each of them in your Answer sheet. Locational hints for each of the places marked on the map are given below seriatim: [2.5×6= 15 Marks]
(i) Mesolithic site
- Rock shelters in the Raisen District in Madhya Pradesh.
- Mainly Paleolithic and Mesolithic period.
- A World Heritage site.
- Earlier (Palaeolithic) tools were largely made of quartzite and sandstone and were of large size.
- Mesolithic tools were most often of chalcedony and of smaller size.
- Floors paved with flat stone slabs found.
- No bones have been found so far.
- Rock cave paintings:
- A natural art gallery with rock cave paintings.
- Numerous layers (Paleolithic-Mesolithic) of paintings with themes like hunting by men, dancing, children paying, women working, sign of proto-family set up etc.
(ii) Harappan site
- In Sindh, Pakistan, on bank of Indus river.
- Early Harappan and mature Harappan phase.
- UNESCO World Heritage site.
- The city into two parts, the Citadel and the Lower City.
- Great Bath
- a large residential structure,
- Great Granary,
- two halls of assembly.
- Lower town:
- courtyard houses.
- Grid pattern.
- A large central well.
- smaller wells,
- small bathrooms and, like the streets, were provided with drains and sanitation.
- Brick stairs indicate at least an upper story.
- Suffered more than once from floods due to the encroaching Indus and tectonic uplifts.
A bronze dancing girl.
A few stone sculptures of seated male figures and Priest King.
- Pashupati seal interpreted as proto-Shiva.
- Seven-stranded necklace.
Ivory, lapis, carnelian, and gold beads, as well as the baked-brick city structures.
(iii) World heritage Site
- On a small island of Mumbai.
- It was known as Gharapuri (literally “the city of Caves”) in ancient time.
- Two groups of caves:
- Five Hindu caves
- Rock cut stone sculptures dedicated Shiva
- from basalt rock.
- Two Buddhist caves.
- Five Hindu caves
- No inscription found.
- Few Kshatrapa coins (4th century AD).
- Chalukyas and mostly the Rashtrakutas were the main creators of the caves, (7th and 8th century).
- During Rshtrakutas:
- Trimurti of Elephanta showing the three faces of Shiva
- Nataraja and Ardhanarishvara sculptures.
- Gujarat Sultanate surrendered Elephanta to the Portuguese in 1534 who named the island “Elephanta Island” in honour of a huge rock-cut black stone statue of an elephant that was then installed on a mound.
(iv) Capital of a Mahajanapada
- In Kashambi district, Uttar Pradesh.
- Capital of Vatsa, a Mahajanapada of the 6th century B.C.
- Ashokan Pillars found here.
- Centre of trade.
- Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang visited.
- Excavations reveal settlements dating back to 2nd millinum B.C.
- PGW pottery, trace of iron etc pointing to a later Vedic settlement.
(v) Ancient Cave site
- In Dhar district (north-west of Ajanta), Madhya Pradesh.
- Buddhist rock cut caves used as Viharas.
- Plan related to the Ajanta caves.
- All the caves are ‘viharas’ with quadrangular plan.
- A chamber at the back, forms the ‘chaitya’, the prayer hall.
- Mural paintings:
- On wall, pillars and ceiling.
- Related to the Buddhist and Jataka stories.
- A copper plate inscription of Maharaja Subandhu, recording his donation for the repair of the vihara was found.
(vi) Ancient terracotta temple
- In Kanpur district, UP.
- A terraced brick building fronted with a terracotta panel.
- Built in the 5th century during the Gupta period.
- Oldest remaining brick/terracotta Hindu shrine with a roof and a high Shikhara, though its upper chamber did sustain some damage in the 18th century.
- Built on a square plan with double-recessed corners and faces east.
- There tall pyramidal spire over the garbhagriha.
- The walls are decorated with terracotta panels depicting aquatic monsters, Shiva and Vishnu etc.
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