|Blue: Pattadakal, Green: Badami, Red: Aihole|
Vatapi is in Bagalkot district of Karnataka. It was the capital of the Early Chalukyas, who ruled between the 6th and 8th centuries. It was founded in 540 AD by Pulakeshi I, an early ruler of the Chalukyas.
The Pallavas under the king Narasimhavarma I seized it in 642 AD & destroyed the Vatapi and called himself Vatapikonda. Vikramaditya I of Chalukyas drove back Pallavas in 654 AD.
Badami is famous for its sandstone cave temples and other structural temples. They provide evidence of the early styles and stages of the southern Indian architecture.
The rock-cut Badami Cave Temples of mainly Siva, Vishnu and Jains are from 6th to 8th centuries. Shiva is found with his consort Parvathi and the 18 armed lord Nataraja in 81 dancing poses. The Bhutanatha group of temples and Mallikarjuna group of temples is found in Badami. There are also paintings on the ceiling.
Badami fort lies east of the Bhuthnatha temple, atop a cliff right opposite the Badami cave temples.
Badami has many inscriptions. The first Sanskrit inscription in old Kannada script dates back to 543 CE, from the period of Pulakeshi I.
One inscription near the Bhuthanatha temple also has inscriptions dating back to the 12th century in Jain rock-cut temple dedicated to the Tirtankara Adinatha.
- It was its capture by Qutb-ud-din Aibak in 1196, after which it became a very important post on the northern frontier of the Delhi empire. In the 13th century two of its governors, Shams-ud-din Iltutmish, and his son Ruknuddin Firuz, attained the imperial throne.
- One of the four sites in India’s Char Dham pilgrimage. Badrinath was re-established as a major pilgrimage site by Adi Shankara in the ninth century.
It is situated north-wst of Ajanta in the district Dhar of Madhya Pradesh. It is famous for the Buddhist rock cut caves situated among the southern slopes of the Vindhyas which were used as Viharas. Bagh Caves are not natural, but instead rock-cut architecture. These caves are closely related to the Ajanta caves in their plan and arrangement.
Bagh Caves contain mural paintings of ancient India. The beautiful paintings on wall, pillars and ceiling which like those of Ajanta are related to the Buddhist and Jataka stories.
All of the caves are ‘viharas’ having quadrangular plan. A small chamber, usually at the back, forms the ‘chaitya’, the prayer hall.
A copper plate inscription of Maharaja Subandhu, recording his donation for the repair of the vihara was found. Though, the date of the Bagh inscription is missing, his Badwani copper plate inscription is dated in the year (Gupta era) 167 (487). So the repair of the Cave took place in the late 5th century.
(5) Bairat (Viratnagar)
- Viratnagar was the capital of the ancient Mahajanapada of Machcha or Matsya. The kingdom came under the control of the neighbouring Chedi Kingdom in the 5th century and was later part of the Mauryan Empire. (Akhnoor, a town in the state of Jammu and Kashmir is also considered as the ancient Virat Nagar.)
- The ruins of the Bijak-ki-pahadi, a Buddhist Chaitya (3rd century BCE) are the oldest free-standing Buddhist structures in India. The town is also home to ruins of a Buddhist monastery, a wood and timber shrine, and rock-cut edict from Emperor Ashoka; these date from the Mauryan period.
- The town has a number of Mughal structures, including a Chhatri with some of the earliest surviving murals in Rajasthan, and a lodge where the Mughal emperor Akbar hunted and stayed overnight on his yearly pilgrimage to Ajmer.
(6) Balasore / Baleshwar
- Balasore district was part of the ancient Kalinga which later became a territory of Koshala or Utkal. It was annexed by Moghuls in 1568 and remained as a part of their suzerainty up to the middle of eighteenth century (up to 1750–51). Then the Marathas occupied this part of Odisha and it became a part of the dominion of the Bhonsle Maratha Rajas of Nagpur. The first of English factories was established in this region in 1640. In 1763 Balasore became a Danish possession, governed from Tranquebar, as part of Danish India. Due to the shallowness of its bay, the trading post was abandoned.
- Now It is also the site of the Indian Ballistic Missile Defense Program’s Integrated Test Range
- Balathal is an archaeological site located in Udaipur district of Rajasthan. The Kataranadi River is very close to the site.
- Two cultural periods: the Chalcolithic and the Early Historic.
- The houses found at the site are square or rectangular made of mud brick, stone, and wattle and daub huts with mud plastered floor and two storage pits. It has been determined that the people practiced agro-pastoralism.
- In later phase, a masive mud fortification wall in the centre of mound, multi-room structural complexes with kitchens and storages and potters’ kilns were found.
- Pottery at the site tells much about life at this ancient site. Balathal is part of the Ahar-Banas Complex and can be connected to other Ahar-Banas culture sites through artifacts that have been discovered. Some of the pottery from Balathal was locally produced, while other types found at Balathal came from other sites in the Ahar-Banas Complex, such as Gilund, Ojiyana, Marmi, and Ahar.
- Pottery includes thin red, black and red, and buffed colored pots. There was also a reserved slip ware.The thick and coarse ware included a red-slipped ware, plain red ware, burnished grey ware and plain grey ware. Very few microliths and a lot of copper artifacts were found. There were also bone tools, stone tools and terracotta balls and figurines of bulls and precious stones. Ornaments included neckless made of terracotta, steatite, semiprecious stones. Much of bones found were of domesticated animals.
- Plant remains included wheat, barley, millet, black&green gram, pea, fruits.
- It was contemporary with early Harappa phase at Kot Diji and as early as the Jodhpura-Ganeshwar culture of north-east rajasthan.
(8) Bamiyan/ Bamyan/ Bamian
Bamyan is the capital of Bamyan Province in central Afghanistan. Bamyan was part of the Kushan Empire in the early centuries of the Christian era. It lies on the Silk Road and was the site of several Buddhist monasteries.
The Hephthalites conquered Bamyan in the 5th century. In 870, when it was conquered by the Saffarids. The area was conquered by the Ghaznavids in the 11th century.
Bamyan is famous for two standing Buddha statues carved into the side of a cliff of mountain in the Bamyan valley. These are in Gandhara School of architecture. One of them was 175 feet high standing statue of Buddha, the world’s tallest. The ancient statue was carved during the Kushan period in the fifth century. The statues were destroyed by the Taliban in March 2001.
(9) Banawali / Banamali
Banawali is located in Haryana. It is an archaeological site belonging to Indus Valley Civilization and is located about 120 km northeast of Kalibangan.
Banwali shows pre-Harappan and Harappan phase like Kalibangan.
Defence wall was found at this site. Well planned Harappan style chess-board pattern fortified town. This fortified area consisted of two adjascent areas, one thought to be for ruling class and other one for common people.
Houses, which were constructed on both sides of lanes, were having rammed earth floor, mud plastered walls, rooms, kitchen, toilet. Houses were having storage facilities.
In a multi roomed house having kitchen and toilet, several seals, weights were found. One more bigger house revealed large number of gold beads, lapis lazuli, carnelian, tiny weights and a ‘touch stone‘like stone with streaks of gold, indicating the house belonged to jeweller or ornament maker.
The earlier bricks in Banawali had the Kalibangan ratio of 3:2:1, but later bricks had the ratio 4:2:1.
Several houses in Banawali show evidence of fire altars, which indicate ritualistic purposes.
S-shaped jars, painted earthen pots, ivory comb, a terracota cake with an engraved ass, human figures – both male and female, a tortoise shell, small stone weights, terracotta plough, female figurines, many items of gold, silver etc. have also been found.
Painted motifs on pottery include peacocks, pipal leaves, tree, deer, star, fish flowers etc.
Harappan seals carrying pictures of Rhinoceros, wild goat, unicorn, composite animal with tiger body have been found.
Marine shells were found at Banawali as well as at Harappa, Kalibangan, which are far away from sea shore and such findings indicate internal trade between the regions during early Indus period.
(10) Banaras / Benaras / Varanasi / Kasi
Varanasi is situated on the north bank of the Ganga in Uttar Pradesh. It is related to Hinduim, Buddhism and Jainism.
It was known as Kasi in 6th century BC when it was part of one of the Mahajanapadas and was annexed by the Magadhan Empire during Ajatasatru. Kasi was a great centre of trade and industry in ancient times.
Nearby Dear Park at Sarnath, Buddha has delivered his first sermon. Chinese Pilgrim Hieun Tsang had visited the city in 7th century AD and attested that the city was a centre of religious and artistic activities.
Parshvanath Jain temple, dedicated to 23rd Tirthankara Parshvanath is located here.
In medieval times, several major saints of Bhakti movements like Kabir, Ravidas, and Tulsidas were related to Varanasi.
Hindus believe that death in Kasi brings salvation which makes it one of the holiest places for Hindus.
It is one of the 12 Jyotirlinga sites in famous Kasi Vishwanath temple and also a Shaktipeeth in Durga temple for Hindus.
It was also a historic educational and art centre. The Banaras Gharana of Hindustani Classical Music was developed here.
The Barabar Caves are in Gaya district, Bihar. These are one of the oldest surviving rock-cut caves in India, mainly dating from the Maurya Empire, some with Ashokan. These caves are situated in the twin hills of Barabar and Nagarjuni. These rock-cut chambers date back to the 3rd century BC, Maurya period, of Ashoka (3rd century BCE) and his grandson Dasaratha and were donated to the monks of Buddhist and Ajivikas sect. These caves were meant for the residence for the monks (Viharas) and served as the purpose of Assembly hall (Chaityas). Some caves were used by ascetics from the Ajivika sect, founded by Makkhali Gosala, a contemporary of Gautama Buddha.
Most caves at Barabar consist of two chambers, carved entirely out of granite, with a highly polished internal surface. They are glorious example of Mauryan architectural skills.
Main caves at Barabar Hill contains are Lomas Rishi and Sudama Caves. These caves became a trend the subsequent centuries, like the larger Buddhist Chaitya, that were found in Maharashtra, such as in Ajanta and Karla Caves, and greatly influenced the tradition of South Asian rock-cut architecture.
Lomas Rishi cave has the arch-like shape facade imitating the contemporary wooden architecture.
- Basohli is widely known for its paintings called Basohli paintings, which are considered the first school of Pahari paintings, and which evolved into the much prolific Kangra paintings school by mid-eighteenth century
- The archaeological site of Bagor is a Late Mesolithic (pre-Harappa) archaeological site located on the Kothari river in the Bhilwara District.
- Evidence for the domestication of sheep, cattle and goats by the nomadic pastoralists of Bagor dating as early as 5000 to 3000 BC.
Bayana or Bijayagadh, is a historical town in Bharatpur district of Rajasthan, founded by Bana clan Jats. Bayana was their capital.
Bayana is famous for Bijaigarh fort which was built by Raja Bijai Pal in 1040 A.D. The Bijaigarh fort contains several old temples and a monolithic sandstone pillar bearing several inscription including an inscription of Vishnuvardhan, a feudatory of Samudragupta. The fort was described as one of the most famous forts in India by Babur.
During the Mughal period, it was a Jat principality and famous for cultivation and trade of indigo.
(16) Baroda / Vadodara
Baroda is located in Gujarat and once it was called Chandravati.
The city was ruled for a long time by Delhi Sultans, until they were overthrown by the Mughals. Marathas eventually took over the region. It became the capital of the Maratha Gaekwads. Sayajirao Gaekwad III (1875–1939), the most successful Gaekwad ruler, made many public and bureaucratic improvements and socio-economic reforms in the region. He worked towards industrialization and establishment of educational institutions. Baroda remained a princely state until Independence.
- Badoli temples, is located in Baroli village in Chittorgarh district in Rajasthan. The complex of eight temples is situated within a walled enclosure; an additional temple is about 1 kilometre away. Four temples are dedicated to Shiva (including Ghateshwara Mahadeva Temple), two to Durga and one each to Shiva-Trimurti, Vishnu and Ganesha.
- They are built in the Pratihara style of temple architecture dated to the tenth century A.D.
- They were built during the Gurjara-Pratihara Empire in the 10th–11th centuries. They are one of the earliest temple complexes in Rajasthan.
- The Nataraja images carved in these temples have 16 arms.
(18) Barygaza / Bharukachha / Buryagaza / Bhrigukachcha / Bharuch
It is an important port located at the mouth of the river Narmada in Gujarat.
It was a big centre of trade and commerce from the 1st century A.D. It was well connected by land routes to Taxila, Ujjain and Mathura. It was also a ship building center and sea port in the coastal trading routes to west. The route made use of the regular and predictable monsoon winds. Many goods from the Far East (the famed Spice and Silk trade) were shipped there during the annual monsoon winds, making it a terminus for several key land-sea trade routes.
Bharukachha was known to the Greeks, the various Persian Empires, in the Roman Republic and Empire, and in other Western centres of civilisation. Arab traders entered Gujarat via Bharuch to do business. The British and the Dutch had also established their business centers here.
(19) Bassein / Vasai
Bassain was an impostant port in the Konkan region of Maharashtra. Vasai or Bassein Fort is a large fort called the fort of St. Sebastian of Vasai.
The Treaty of Bassein was signed by Sultan Bahadur Shah of Gujarat and the Portugese in 1534, based on which, the Portuguese gained control of Bassein. They built churches, cathedrals and other huge buildings here.
In 1739, Maratha captured Bassain through the treaty of Salbai. After Maratha’s defeat from British in 1818, it became part of British territories.
(20) Basukunda (Kundagram is ancient name) / Basrah
Vaishali is in Bihar. It the capital city of the Licchavi, considered one of the first example of a republic, in the Vrijji Confederacy Mahajanapada, around the 6th century BCE.
It was here in 599 BCE the 24th Jain Tirthankara, Mahavira was born and brought up in Kundagrama in Vaisali republic.
During Bimbisara, Gautama Buddha preached his last sermon before his death in 483 BCE, then in 383 BCE the Second Buddhist council was convened here by King Kalasoka, making it an important place in both Jain and Buddhist religions.
An Ashokan Pillar is found here which is topped by a single lion.
Vaisali finds mention in the travel accounts of Chinese explorers, Faxian (4th century CE) and Xuanzang (7th century CE).
Vaishali is also renowned as the land of Amrapali, the great Indian courtesan, who appears in many folktales, as well as in Buddhist literature who was said to become a disciple of Buddha.
(21) Bedsa / Bedse
Bedse are situated in Pune District of Maharashtra. It is famous for Buddhist rock cut caves. It has stupa and monastery (vihara for monks to stay). Caves contain some carvings although are less ornate than later caves. At Bedsa for the first time a new design of Chaitya façade which became the characteristic of the subsequent Chaitya halls.
- In Belagavi district, Karnataka.The present city was built in the 12th century AD by the Ratta dynasty.The fort of Belgaum was built in 1204 by a Ratta officer .Belgaum served as the capital of that dynasty between 1210 and 1250, before the Rattas were defeated by the Yadava dynasty of Devagiri.
- The Khiljis of Delhi invaded the region at the turn of the 14th century and succeeded in ruining both indigenous powers of the region, the Yadava and the Hoysalas, without providing a viable administration. This lacuna was supplied by the Vijayanagara Empire, which had become the established power of the area by 1336.
- A century later, the town had become a bustling trading hub for diamonds and wood, owing to its favourable geographic location in the kingdom.
- In 1474, the Bahmani Sultanate, then ruling from Bidar, captured the fort of Belagavi. Shortly afterward, in 1518, the Bahamani sultanate splintered into five small states and Belagavi became part of the Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur.
Belur is situated in Hassan district near Halebid. It was the early capital of the Hoysala Kingdom.
The town is renowned for its Chennakesava temple (Vishnu) which is one of the finest examples of Hoysala architecture and sculptures. It was built by king Vishnuvardhana in commemoration of his victory over the Cholas at Talakad in 1117 CE. The Dravida style Gopuram at the entrance which was a later addition by the Vijayanagara kings.
The facade of the temple is filled with intricate sculptures and friezes. The intricate workmanship includes elephants, lions, horses, episodes from the Indian mythological epics, and sensuous dancers (Shilabalikas). Many paintings of animals are depicted with the deities. Inside the temple are a number of ornate pillars. The doorways are guarded on either side by the decorated Dwarapalas.
|1.The first moulding were the temple wall meets the jagati (platform) around the temple is made up entirely of afrieze of elephants.2.Frieze on moldings and perforated windows 3.A frieze pattern|
(24) Besnagar (Near Vidisha, See Vidisha in part-V)
Vidisha is an ancient city, situated just east of Betwa River near Bhopal. The city, originally called Besnagar and later dubbed Bhilsa, was renamed Vidisha in 1956. Besnagar figures significantly in Buddhist, Jain and Brahmanical literature in various forms like Vaisyanagar, Vessanagar, etc.
Vidisha is rich in ancient monuments and historic places.
The Heliodorus pillar as a monolithic free standing stone column was erected around 113 BCE in central India in Besnagar, by Heliodorus, a Greek ambassador of the Indo-Greek king Antialcidas to the court of the Shunga king. The pillar was surmounted by a sculpture of Garuda and was apparently dedicated by Heliodorus to the god Vasudeva. It is also called Garuda pillar.
The Heliodorus pillar bears an inscription which states that it was raised in honour of Vasudeva by Heliodorous, a resident of Taxila, who had been sent to the court of Bhagabhadra as an envoy of Indo-Greek king. This inscription is a valuable historical record, revealing both the relations that existed between the region and the Greek kingdoms of the Punjab, and the fact that the Greek ambassador had become a follower of Hindu god Vishnu.
The Udayagiri Caves are also situated nearby. Just south of Vidisha is the ancient Buddhist complex of Sanchi. It was sometimes termed Vedisagiri, because of its closeness to Vidisha.
(25) Bhadreshwar / Bhadrawati
- In Kutch district, Gujarat.
- The ruins of ancient city of Bhadrawati can be found here. Bhadrawati was ruled by King Sidhsen in 449 B.C. Later it was ruled by The Solanki rulers who were Jains, and they changed the name to Bhadreshwar. Then in 1315, a great famine struck Kutch, after which the town was renovated by Jagdusha, the Jain merchant
- Centuries old Jain temple complex known as Vasai Jain Temple (One of the oldest Jain temples).
- There is also an ancient Shiva temple known as Chokhanda Mahadev situated at the sea-shore and the big square step well known as the Pandavs Kund.
- Duda Masjid and a stepwell, Duda vaav, which is very old (12th century), meaning they predate the well known Islamic architecture of Ahmedabad.
- A minor archaeological site of Indus valley Civilization in Bharuch district near coastline and gives access to the agate-bearing mines and forested hills of the valleys of the rivers Narmada and Tapti.
- Bhagatrav have been an important port, as Lothal.
- Flood was one of the reasons for decline/destruction of some Harappan settlements such as Bhagatrav, Lothal, Rangpur, Desalpur, Chanhu-daro etc.
Bhagwanpura is located in Kurukshetra district of Haryana. It is an archaeological site which revealed the presence of Late Harappan Pottery for the first time.
The site shows an overlap between the Late Harappan (1700–1300 BCE) and Painted Grey Ware cultures (1400–1000 BCE). Painted Grey Ware is generally associated with the Vedic Age.
Archaeological finds include a humped bull, terracotta beads, glass bangles and semi-precious stones.
During the late Harappan, people lived in houses of burnt brick and built mud platforms probably to protect against flooding. Later, the late Harappan pottery continued, but a new form of pottery (the PGW) was introduced.
Initially, the PGW people lived in thatched wattle-and-daub huts, but later they began to build mud-walled houses. One large house had thirteen rooms and a courtyard, and may have belonged to a chief. Towards the end, the PGW people began to use burnt bricks for the construction of Vedic fire altars.
During both phases, cattle, sheep, and pig were domesticated, but horse bones only occur in later period.
(28) Bhaja / Bhaje (Location same as Pune in Part P)
Bhaja Caves is a group of rock-cut caves dating back to the 2nd century BC located near Pune. It is famous for Buddhist Stupas, Chaitya Griha and Viharas cut out of rocks. They represent the earliest specimen of cave architecture in western India and very closely resemble the wooden form of architecture.
The stupas are relics of resident monks, who died at Bhaja, and display an inscription with the names of monks. Names of monks have been titled with Theras.
Bhaja caves also contain Vihara attached to the Chaitya hall. It has a square central hall with cells cut into the rock for monks to stay. The most remarkable are the two reliefs- one represents a royal figure in a chariot drawn by four horses and the other depicts a princely figure riding an enormous elephant.
The most prominent excavation is its Chaityagriha, with an open, horseshoe-arched entrance, demonstrating prototypes of wooden architecture and a vaulted horseshoe ceiling. It is one of the earliest of the type. Chaitygriha has some Buddha images. A cistern inscription shows the name of a donor from the 2nd century AD.
Characteristic for early Buddhism found as initially the caves had symbolic Buddha representation. After 4 A.D. Buddha was painted in physical form as well.
- Bharatpur is a city in Rajasthan. Located in the Brij region, Bharatpur was once considered to be an impregnable city and was the capital of the Jat kingdom later captured by the Marathas.
- At the end of the 17th century, Jat Baija, Zamindar of the village of Sansani took advantage of the weakness of the Sultanate of Delhi to enlarge his territory. His descendents, Churaman Singh and Badan Singh continued the expansion, the latter being the founder of the fortress of Bharatpur in 1724.
- The power of the Jats reached its zenith under Suraj Mal, Badan Singh’s nephew, stepson, adopted son and successor. He conquered a vast territory in north central India, including the Imperial cities of Agra and Delhi. Thereafter the Jats proved fickle allies, making and breaking alliances with the Mughals, Mahrattas and the British. The fort eventually fell to Lord Combermere’s forces in 1826, after the British intervened to unseat a usurper, and demolished. Thereafter, Jats proved to be great allies, supplying large numbers of recruits for the Indian Army and the Maharajas participating in Imperial campaigns. The state acceded to the Dominion of India in August 1947
Bharhut is in the Satna district of Madhya Pradesh. It is known for one of the earliest Buddhist Stupa which may have been first built by Ashoka in the 3rd century BCE, but many works of art were added during the Sunga period in 2nd and 1st century BCE. Now only the stupa railing along with part of the gateway survives. The gateways and railings contain numerous birth stories of the Buddha’s previous lives, or Jataka tales. The stupa railings carry the names of those people who donated towards this work.
Bharhut sculptures represent the Buddha in the form of symbols, such as wheel, a pair of footprints etc and not in human form. Many non-Buddhist deites and mystic concepts are depicted by Bharhut sculptures.
Some inscriptions mention the donors while others serve as labels for panels depicting the Jatakas, the life of the Buddha, other stories and Yakshas and Yakshinis.
(31) Bhatnair / Bhatner / Hanumangarh
It is situated in Hanumangarh district in Rajasthan, on the banks of the river Ghaggar (Ancient Sarasvati river). The city was once called Bhatner because it was a stronghold of Bhati Rajputs.
A 1700-year-old big and strong Bhatner fort is situated in Bhatner, the description of which can be found in Ain-i-Akbari. A famous Bhadrakali temple is situated near the town.
It has yielded a number of terracotta decorative tiles in the late Kushan Empire style along with a number of coins.
- The Bhimbetka rock shelters are an archaeological site of the Paleolithic, exhibiting the earliest traces of human life on the Indian subcontinent, and thus the beginning of the South Asian Stone Age. It is located in the Raisen District in Madhya Pradesh, southern edge of the Vindhya hills, inside the Ratapani Wildlife Sanctuary.
- At least some of the shelters were inhabited by Homo erectus more than 100,000 years ago. Some of the Stone Age rock paintings found among the Bhimbetka rock shelters are approximately 30,000 years old.
- The caves also deliver early evidence of dance. They were declared a World Heritage Site.
- The entire area is covered by thick vegetation, has abundant natural resources in its perennial water supplies, natural shelters, rich forest flora and fauna.
- More than 750 such shelters have been identified, of which 243 are in the Bhimbetka group and 178 in the Lakha Juar group. Archeological studies revealed a continuous sequence of Stone Age cultures (from the late Acheulian to the late Mesolithic), as well as the world’s oldest stone walls and floors.
- Barkheda has been identified as the source of the raw materials used in some of the monoliths discovered at Bhimbetka.
- The rock shelters and caves of Bhimbetka have a large number of paintings. The oldest paintings are considered to be 30,000 years old.
- The colors used are vegetable colors which have endured through time because the drawings were generally made deep inside a niche or on inner walls. The drawings and paintings can be classified under seven different periods.
- Period I-(Upper Paleolithic): These are linear representations, in green and dark red, of huge figures of animals such as bison, tigers and rhinoceroses.
- Period II-(Mesolithic): Comparatively small in size the stylised figures in this group show linear decorations on the body. In addition to animals there are human figures and hunting scenes, giving a clear picture of the weapons they used: barbed spears, pointed sticks, bows and arrows. The depiction of communal dances, birds, musical instruments, mothers and children, pregnant women, men carrying dead animals, drinking and burials appear in rhythmic movement.
- Period III-(Chalcolithic): Similar to the paintings of the Chalcolithic, these drawings reveal that during this period the cave dwellers of this area were in contact with the agricultural communities of the Malwa plains, exchanging goods with them.
- Period IV&V-(Early historic): The figures of this group have a schematic and decorative style and are painted mainly in red, white and yellow. The association is of riders, depiction of religious symbols, tunic-like dresses and the existence of scripts of different periods. The religious beliefs are represented by figures of yakshas, tree gods and magical sky chariots.
- Period VI&VII-(Medieval): These paintings are geometric linear and more schematic, but they show degeneration and crudeness in their artistic style. The colors used by the cave dwellers were prepared by combining manganese, hematite and wooden coal.
- One rock, popularly referred to as “Zoo Rock”, depicts elephants, sambar, bison and deer. Paintings on another rock show a peacock, a snake, a deer and the sun.
- On another rock, two elephants with tusks are painted. Hunting scenes with hunters carrying bows, arrows, swords and shields also find their place in the community of these pre-historic paintings. In one of the caves, a bison is shown in pursuit of a hunter while his two companions appear to stand helplessly nearby; in another, some horsemen are seen, along with archers.
- In one painting, a large wild boar is seen. It is not known whether such large boars existed that time (note that, according to the skeletons found, those humans were about 7 feet tall) or the humans drew it with enlarged scale.
(33) Bhirrana / Birhana
- Bhirrana is a small village located in Fatehabad District, Haryana.
- An Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) report claims that the largest and oldest site of the Harappan Civilization are both in Haryana. The oldest, according to C-14 radio-dating done by ASI, is at Bhirana and has been dated to 7570-6200 BC. That makes it far older than the site at Mehrgarh, Pakistan, which has been dated to 6400-7000 BC.The report also states that Rakhigarhi, a village close to Bhirana, is the largest Harappan site in the world.
- The excavation has revealed these cultural periods; Period IA: Hakra Wares Culture, Period IB: Early Harappan Culture, Period IIA: Early Mature Harappan and Period IIB: Mature Harappan Culture.
- Period IA: Hakra Wares Culture: The remains of the Harappan culture right from its nascent stage, i.e. Hakra Wares Culture (antedating the Known Early Harappan Culture in the subcontinent, also known as Kalibangan-I.) to a full-fledged Mature Harappan city. Prior to the excavation of Bhirrana, no Hakra Wares culture, predating the Early Harappan had been exposed in any Indian site. This culture is characterised by structures in the form of plastered dwelling pits, cut into the natural soil. The artefacts: a copper bangle, copper arrowhead, bangles of terracotta, beads of lapis lazuli and steatite, bone point, stone saddle etc. The pottery :Mud Applique Wares, Incised, Tan / Chocolate Slipped Wares, Brown-on-Buff Wares, Bichrome Wares (Paintings on the exterior with black and white pigments), Black-on-Red Ware and plain red wares.
- The Period IB: Early Harappan Culture: The settlement was with no fortification. The houses built of mud bricks of buff colour in the ratio of 3:2:1. The pottery of this period shows all the six fabrics of Kalibangan – I along with many of the Hakra Wares of the earlier period. The artifacts: a seal of quarter-foil shape made of shell, arrowheads, bangles and rings of copper, beads of carnelian, jasper, lapis lazuli, steatite, shell and terracotta, bull figurines, rattles, wheels, gamesmen, and marbles of terracotta, bangles of terracotta and faience, bone objects, sling balls, marbles and pounders of sandstone.
- The Period IIA: Early Mature Harappan Culture: This period is marked by transformation in the city lay-out within a fortification wall. The twin units of the town planning; Citadel and Lower Town came into vogue. The streets, lanes and by-lanes were oriented in similar fashion. The pottery assemblage shows a mixed bag of Early Harappan and Mature Harappan forms. The artifacts: beads of semi-precious stones, bangles of copper, shell, terracotta and faience; fishhook, chisel, arrowhead of copper; terracotta animal figurines.
- The Period IIB: Mature Harappan Culture with all the characteristic features of a well-developed Harappan city. The artifacts: Seals of steatite, bangles of copper, terracotta, faience and shell, inscribed celts of copper, bone objects, Terrecotta wheels with painted spokes, animal figurines of terracotta, beads of lapis lazuli, carnelian, agate, faience, steatite, terracotta and stone objects. A replica of the famous “Dancing Girl” from Mohenjodaro is found engraved on a potsherd. The massive fortification wall and house was made of mud bricks. Wide linear roads separated the houses. Presence of the baked bricks is seen used in the main drain to flush out the waste water from the houses.
- People used to live in shallow mud plastered pit dwellings and pits were also used for industrial activity or sacrifices. Multi roomed houses were exposed at this site, one house with ten rooms and another with three rooms; another house had kitchen, court yards, tandoor, chullah in kitchen and beside chullah, charred bone remains of a bovine animal was also found.
- All phases of Indus Valley Civilisation are represented in this site.
- Bhitargaon is a town in Kanpur district, Uttar Pradesh known for its ancient Hindu temple.The Bhitargaon Temple is a terraced brick building fronted with a terracotta panel. Built in the 6th century during the Gupta Empire, it is the oldest remaining terracotta Hindu shrine with a roof and a high Sikhara.
- The temple is built on a square plan with double-recessed corners and faces east. There tall pyramidal spire over the garbhagriha. The walls are decorated with terracotta panels depicting aquatic monsters, Shiva and Vishnu etc.
- The pillar is carved from red sandstone and rises to fifteen feet in height. The upper part is highly polished whereas chisel marks can still be seen on the lower section. The capital is broken and all that remains is a bell shape.
- Bhitari pillar inscription (dated in year 136 of the Gupta Era (454-455 CE)) refers to the reign of Skandagupta, as a successor of Kumaragupta I, an installation of a Shiva linga by Skandgupta, the erection of a sacred image of Vishnu, and the allotment, to the image, of the village in which the column stands.
- Bhitari pillar inscription mentions that the fortunes of the dynasty had sunk to a low and was restored by Skandagupta.
- Skandagupta fought some hard battles to restore the lost glory of the Guptas. Bhitari inscription talks about Pusyamitras and Mlechchas (Huns) who were defeated by Skandagupta.
- Bhopal was founded by the king Bhoja of the Paramara dynasty (AD 1000–1055), who ruled from his capital at Dhar.
- In the early 17 th century, In the early 18th century, Bhopal was a small village in the local Gond kingdom.
- The modern Bhopal city was established by Dost Mohammad Khan (1672–1728), an Afghan soldier in the Mughal army. Khan received the territory of Bhopal from the Gond queen Rani Kamlapati in lieu of payment for mercenary services, and usurped her kingdom after her death.
It is situated in the Baghelkhand region in Satna district of Madhya Pradesh. It is famoud for Shiva temple of Gupta period (5th – 6th Century AD). This is made of red sand stone.
The important feature of the Bhumara temple is the presence of small shrines on either side of the entrance steps. Such architecture came to be known as Panchayatana.
In a niche of the temple, the image of God Ganapati, without a rat, has been found. It is considered to be one of the earliest cult-images of Ganesha.
It is in Karnataka state. Earliest recorded history of its existence as a fort is traced to the first Muslim invasion by Prince Ulugh Khan in 1322, where after it came under the reign of the Tughlaq dynasty.
With the establishment of the Bahmani dyanasty (1347), Bidar was occupied by Sultan Alla-Ud-Din Bahman Shah Bahmani. During the rule of Ahmad Shah I (1422–1486), Bidar was made the capital city of Bahmani Kingdom (earlier capital was Gulbaraga) since it had better climatic conditions and was also a fertile land. Mahmud Gawan, the Prime Minister of Bahmani, had built a great three storied university (Madrasa) here which had library, mosque, labs, lecture halls etc.
The beautiful Jama Masjid, the 16 pillared mosque, tombs of the 12 Bahmani kings are situated in Bidar.
Bidar remained the capital till the extinction of the kingdom and its disintegration into five independent kingdoms of Bijapur, Golconda, Ahmadnagar, Bidar and Berar. Bidar sultanate was founded by Barid Shahi dynasty and then occupied by Adil Shahi dynasty of Bijapur in 1620. Aurangzeb captured it and Bidar became part the Mughal Empire in 1686. In 1724, Bidar became a part of the Asaf Jahi Kingdom of the Nizams.
Bidar is known for its Bidri handicraft products. Bidriware is a metal handicraft that originated in Bidar in the 14th century, during the rule of the Bahamani Sultans.
It is in modern Karnataka state. In 1518, the Bahmani Sultanate split into five splinter states, one of which was Bijapur, founded by Yusuf Adil Shah. The rule of this dynasty ended in 1686, when Bijapur was conquered during the reign of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.
It is well known for its historical monuments of architectural importance built during the rule of the Adil Shahi dynasty. Gol Gumbaz, the the tomb of Mohammed Adil Shahm is the most famous monument in Bijapur. It is the largest dome ever built in India.
Ibrahim Rauza is the tomb of Ibrahim Adil Shah II, the fifth king of the dynasty and, like the Mughal emperor Akbar, known for religious tolerance. It was built on a single rock bed.
In 1724 the Nizam of Hyderabad established his independence in the Deccan, and included Bijapur. Later Marathas and then British took over Bijapur.
In 1488 Rathore prince Rao Bikaji established the city of Bikaner which is located in present Rajasthan. Rao Bikaji was the first son of Maharaja Rao Jodha of the Rathor clan, the founder of Jodhpur and conquered the largely arid country in the north of Rajasthan. Later Raja Rai Singh of Bikaner accepted Mughal suzerainty.
A fort called Junagarh fort was built here. Other monuments here are: Laxmi Niwas Palace, Lalgarh Palace.
Bikaner was considered as an oasis on the trade route between central Asia and Gujarat.
- Birbhanpur is on Banks of Damodar River in West Bengal (Burdwan district) and it is a Mesolithic site.
(43) Bodhgaya (Uruvela, Sambodhi, Vajrasana or Mahabodhi)
It is situated In Gaya district of Bihar. In Budhist text, Bodh Gaya is called Uruvela situated on the ban of river Niranjana where Lord Buddhia attained (Bodhimandala) under the Bodhi Tree.
Mahabodhi Temple Complex is situated here which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The temple was described by the Chinese traveler Hiuen Tsang calling it Mahabodhi Vihara.
This place was visited by Magadh Emperor Ashoka.
For Buddhists, Bodh Gaya is the most important of the main four pilgrimage sites related to the life of Gautama Buddha, the other three being Kushinagar, Lumbini, and Sarnath.
Accounts of the Chinese pilgrims Faxian in the 5th century and Hiuen Tsang in the 7th century describe Bodh Gaya.
In the Gupta period, as per the Chinese traditions, the king Meghavarman of Sri Lanka sent, with the permission of Samudra Gupta, a monk to establish at Bodh Gaya a monastery for the use of Sri Lankan monks.
Brahmagiri is an archaeological site located in the Chitradurga district of Karnataka. It is known for the large number of megalithic monuments.
Neoliths found in this region were evidence of the occupation of this region by farming-herding communities in the pre-megalithic period.
Excavation has revealed medieval stone temples, pottery, terracota beads and figurines, semiprecious stones and megalithic structures.
Rock edicts of Emperor Ashoka here, denoted the southernmost extent of the Mauryan Empire.
- Bundi and the eponymous princely state are said to derive their names from a former Meena tribe man called Bunda Meena. Later the region was governed by Rao Deva Hada, who took over Bundi in 1342, and established a princely state Bundi, renaming the surrounding area called Hadoti, the land of great Hada Rajputs.
- The Taragarh Fort, is the most impressive of the city’s structures. It was constructed in AD 1354 .
- The Bundi Palace is adjacent to the Taragarh Fort and is notable for its lavish traditional murals.
- The largest of Bundi’s baoris or stepwells is the intricately carved Raniji ki Baori, built in 1699 by Rani Nathavatji.There are over 50 stepwells in Bundi.
It is situated in Nimar district of Madhya Pradesh. It was the capital of Khandesh sultanate on the river of Godavari founded by Nasir Shah of Faruqi dynasty in 1388. He named it after a Sufi saint, Burhan-ud Din.
Later, Miran Adil Khan II (reigned 1457–1501), another sultan of this dynasty built a citadel and a number of palaces in Burhanpur. During his long reign, Burhanpur was transformed to a major centre for trade and textile production. Faruqi kings also built Jama Masjid and Bibi Masjid here.
In 1601, Mughal emperor Akbar annexed the Khandesh sultanate and Burhanpur became the capital of Khandesh Subah of the Mughal Empire.
Burhanpur was an important outpost of the Mughals. Shah Jahan spent a considerable time in this city, and helped add to the Shahi Qila. Diwan-i-Aam and Diwan-i-Khas were built on the terrace of the Qila. The main attraction at the palace is the hamam or the royal bath.
It is situated in northeast of Srinagar. Burzahom was the first Neolithic site to be discovered in Kashmir. Megalithic culture followed the Neolithic culture.
It has certain features which differentiate it from other Neolithic cultures of India. For example: people were not acqainted with agriculture amd followed hunting and fishing economy.
Other important feature:
- Use of a large number of well-polished bone and stone tools. Large number of bone tools in form of harpoons, needles, arrowheads etc is found.
- Numerous human and animal burials have been found. Humans were buried both primarily and secondarily in pits, mostly dug into the house floors. In secondary burials skulls and long bones were preferred.
- Graves contained human bones as well as bones of dogs and antlered deer. Probably pet animals were buried along their masters.
- Dwelling pits and storage pits are found. Storage pits, containing some animal bones, stone and bone tools are found in close proximity to the dwelling pits which are generally circular in shape.
- The early period pottery is characterised by crude and handmade, the colour mainly of grey and black. Later wheel-made red-ware pottery is found.