Dabhol is a small seaport town in the Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra in the Konkan region. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Dabul trade center, first under the Bahmani, later under the Adil Shahi sultans of Bijapur. At its height, it was the most important port between Chaul and Goa. It used to be the principal port of South Konkan region, carrying on trade with ports in the Mediterranean, the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf.
It was bombarded, sacked by Portuguese under Francisco de Almeida in 1508. The break-up of the Bahmani state into several smaller Deccan sultanates had accelerated Dabul’s decline and alternative, more convenient ports were cultivated.
Shahi Masjid with dome and minarets standing close to the port built in Adilshah’s Regime by Aisha Bibi (Adilshah’s Begum) in 1659-60.
Dabul was conquered by Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj around 1660.
It is an archaeological site showing the Chalcolithic Culture located on the left bank of the Pravara River, a tributary of the Godavari River in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra.
Five distinct Chalcolithic cultural phases, based on painted ceramics are found:
- Savalda culture
- Late Harappan culture (Southern most Harappan site)
- Daimabad culture
- Malwa culture
- Jorwe culture
The houses of mud walls, with hearths, storage pits and jars etc are found. Traces of a mud fortification wall are found in later phases.
The plant remains included barley, lentil, common pea, grass pea, gram etc.
The excavation yielded copper-bronze rings, beads of shell, terracotta, carnelian and agate, microliths, tanged arrowheads of bone, phallus-shaped object made of agate etc.
Terracotta seals with Harappan writings, inscribed potsherds, stone tools such as microlithic blades, beads of gold, stone and terracotta, bangles of shell, terracotta measuring scale are found.
A hoard of four bronze objects like sculpture of a chariot, a water buffalo, an elephant, a rhinoceros are found.
A copper-smelting furnace was found.
The ware found here are made on wheel. They are coarse fabric painted in ochre-red colour, fine red ware and black-on-buff-and-cream ware with linear and geometric designs painted in black. Its shape included dishes-on-stand, bowls-on-stand, dishes and vases.
Burials found were of different types like pit burial or post-cremation urn burial or extended burial in an urn.
On the basis of the occurrence of fire altars, certain structures were identified as religious structures.
Daman is situated on the west coast of India.The Portuguese captured it in the first half of 16th century and it was settled as a Portuguese colony and remained so for over 400 years.
A large fort was built here in the 16th century to guard against the Mughals. Marathas collected Chauth in Damanthough it was under the possession of Portuguese.
Daman was incorporated into India in December 1961 after a battle between the Portuguese and the Indians.
- In Sambalpur District, Orissa.
- A large number of lower and middle palaeolithic tools were found in explorations at Dari-dungri
(5) Daojali hading
- Early Neolithic cultures based on the unifacially flaked hand-axe in the Garo hills. It is conjectured that this region was the contact point for the Indian and the Southeast Asian cultures.
- These neolithic sites, though widely spread, are concentrated in the hills and high grounds, due possibly to the floods. These cultures performed shifting cultivation called jhum, which is still practiced by some communities in the region. Some typical sites are Daojali Hading in Dima Hasao, Sarutaru in Kamrup district and Selbagiri in the Garo Hills.
(6) Dasapura (Modern Mandsor / Mandsaur)
It is situated in Western Madhya Pradesh. It was the important commercial centre and lay on the route from north to the Western Coast.
A stone inscription of the time of Kumara Gupta (437 AD) refers to the construction of a magnificent Sun Temple by a guild of silk-weavers who had immigrated from southern Gujarat.
Two monolith pillars were erected here by King Yasodharman in 528 AD with inscription which describe his exploits including victory over the Huna Chief Mihirkula.
Hinglajgarh Fort is an ancient fort situated in Mandasor. This fort has been at its peak of grandeur during Parmara rule.
(7) Daulatabad / Devagiri / Deogiri
It is situated in the Aurangabad district of Maharashtra. Bhillama V who was one of the powerful Yadava rulers founded the city of Deogiri and shifted his capital here. Deogiri was a great centre of trade and commerce.
During the rule of Rama Chandra Deva, Ala-ud-din Khilji invaded and captured Deogiri in A.D. 1296. However, Ramachandradeva was allowed to rule as a vassal. Later, Malik Kafur led two campaigns against Deogiri. Later the fort was annexed to the Delhi Sultanate.
Muhammad-bin-Tughluq renamed Deogiri as Daulatabad and and shifted the capital from Delhi in A.D. 1328 for two years, before it was abandoned later.
Fort of Daulatabad was impregnable hill fortress. Other buildings are Char Minar and Chini Mahal.
(8) Debal (Location same as Karachi)
It is located in Sind province of Pakistan. It was an ancient port located near modern Karachi, Sindh.It is historically important because Arab invaders of India for the first time made their appearance from Debal which was then a sea port. It was then ruled by King Dahir who died fighting Arab invader Muhammad Bin Qasim. It was subsequently from here that Muslim invaders expanded. Ater Muhammad Ghaznavi and Muhammad Ghuri also occupied it.
Debal was visited by Ottoman admiral Seydi Ali Reis in 1554. In 1568 Debal was attacked by the Portuguese in an attempt to destroy the Ottoman vessels anchored there.
- In the seventh century this area was known as Sudhnagar and was described by the Chinese traveler Huen Tsang. Sudhnagar later came to be recognised as the name of Kaalsi. Edicts of Ashoka have been found in the region along the banks of river Yamuna in Kaalsi
- Dehradun itself derives its name from the historical fact that Shri Ram Rai, the eldest son of the Seventh Sikh Guru Har Rai, set up his “dera” (camp) in “dun” (valley) in 1676. This ‘Dera’ ‘Dun’ later on became Dehradun.
- On the western front Garhwal and parts of Himachal Pradesh up to Punjab and on the eastern front the state of Sikkim up to Darjeeling became parts of Nepal for a brief period until the British East India Company went on war from 1814 to 1816. The war ended with signing of the Treaty of Sugowli where almost a third was ceded to British East India company. The British got Dehradun in 1816 and colonised Landour and Mussoorie in 1827-1828.
The city is believed to be the site of Indraprastha, the capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata. Remains of several major cities have been discovered in Delhi. Anang Pal of the Tomara dynasty founded the city of Lal Kot in AD 736. The Chauhans conquered Lal Kot in 1180 and renamed it Qila Rai Pithora. Of Anangpal, the primary source for information comes from the Prithviraj Raso, a history of Prithviraj Chauhan.
The king Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated in 1192 by Muhammad Ghori. On the death of Muhammad in 1206, his slave-general, Qutb-ud-din Aibak, broke away from the Ghurid Dynasty and became the first Sultan of Delhi. It remained the capital of Delhi Sultanate and later Mughals shifted their capital from Agra to Delhi. Similarly British shifted their capital from Calcutta to Delhi.
The city has Red Fort and Jama Masjid built by Emperor Shah Jahan. Mehraulli is iron pillar of the days of Guptas which has not been rusted. It has Qutub Minar and many others historical monuments.
Deogarh is located on the right bank of Betwa in Jhansi district of Uttar Pradesh. The Gupta period temple dedicated to Lord Vishnu, the Dashavatara Temple, is situated here which is one of the earliest known Panchyatana temples in North India. It is in Nagar style and arks beginning of the Shikhara type of temples. Special features of this ancient temple include carved figurines of river goddesses Ganga and Yamuna on the doorway to the sanctum sanctorum, the Anantshayi Vishnu reclining on a serpent.
The sculpture on the Dasawatara temple show classical Gupta style.
The fort on the hill of Deogarh is dominated by a cluster of Jain temples, the oldest of these dating to the 8th or 9th century.
- Desalpur (Gunthli) is a site belonging to Indus Valley Civilisation located in Kutch District. Desalpur is 25 km away from Bhuj.
- In addition to regular Harappan pottery, a thin grey ware carefully potted and painted with lines of bluish green pigment were found.
- Apart from basic Harappan pottery, two script bearing seals, one of steatite and other of copper were also found; one script bearing terrecotta sealings was also found.
- Desalpur had a massive stone fortification. Several houses were built adjacent to fort wall inside the town and central part of the settlement had a structural complex with foundation offsets, massive walls and spacious rooms.
(14) Devni mori
- The remains of a Buddhist monastery belonging to 3rd-4th century AD have been unearthed from Devni Mori, about two km from Shamlaji. The presence of a stupa and monastery has reconfirmed that during the early centuries of Christian era, there had been a strong presence of Buddhists in Vadnagar. Excavating of the stupa brought to light an inscribed casket which contained relics of Budhha. The inscription clearly mentions that the casket contains bodily relics of Buddha.
- The state government has proposed to develop Devni Mori in Sabarkantha, Taranga in Junagadh and Vadnagar in Mehsana as an integrated Buddhist circuit
- The existence of urban settlements in the area of modern Dhaka can be traced back to as early as the 1st century. This small locality was ruled by the Buddhist kingdom of Kamarupa and the Pala Empire before passing the control over to the Hindu Sena dynasty in the 9th century.The name of the city may have derived after the establishment of the Goddess Dhakeshwari’s temple by Ballal Sena in the 12th century.
- In 1576, much of Bengal came under the control of the Mughal Empire. At the time, Dhaka emerged as Mughal military base, prior to this, Chittagong was the leading city of Bengal. A major expansion of the city took place under the direction of a general Shaista Khan on orders from the Emperor Aurangzeb in the 17th century.
(16) Dharmrajeshwar (Location same as Mandsaur)
- Dhamner is an ancient Buddhist and Hindu cave temple site of 4th-5th Century in Mandsaur district in Madhya Pradesh, India. It is an example of Indian rock-cut architecture.
- It has the 9th century monolithic temple of Dharmarajeshwara, carving it out of solid natural rock. It has a sanctum with a Sabhamandapa and porch. The spire of the shrine is in the north Indian style. The architecture of Dharmarajesvara temple can be compared with Kailash Temple of Ellora. There is a big temple in the middle . Around the main temple there are seven small temples. There is a big Shivalinga in the main temple along with a statue of Vishnu. Engraved on the entrance gate are figures of Vishnu and Lakshami. There are statues of Bhairava, Kali, Shiva, Garuda and Parvati. The temple seems to be devoted to both Shiva and Vishnu.
(17) Dharnikota / Dhanyakataka
Dharanikota is located on the right bank of the river Krishna in the Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh near Buddhist site of Amaravati.
Archaeological excavations at Dharanikota revealed that it was an important town during 400 BC and AD 400. It was probably eastern capital of Satavahanas. It was also a centre of trade and commerce and was well connected with Pratisthana and port of Bharuch on the western coast.
The antiquities found here include Rouletted Ware, Arretine sherds and Roman amphora indicating Roman contact and influence. Besides these, glass objects, copper and lead coins with lion and elephant emblem belonging to Satavahanas are found.
The inscriptions suggest that it was an important centre of Mahasmghika School of Buddhism during Satavahanas and Ikshavaku period. Excavations at Dharanikota revealed Buddhist viharas and Stupa.
Dhauli is situated near Bhubaneshwar in Orissa. It has been identified with Tosali which is mentioned by ancient geographer Ptolemy as a metropolis.
It has major Edicts of Ashoka engraved on a mass of rock. The Rock Edicts found here include Nos. I-X, XIV and two separate Kalinga Edicts. In Kalinga Edict VI, Ashoka expresses his concern for the welfare of the whole world.
The rock-cut elephant above the Edicts is the earliest Buddhist sculpture of Odisha.
- Dholavira is an archaeological site at Khadirbet in Kutch District in Gujarat. It is one of the five largest Harappan sites belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization. It is located on the Khadir bet island in the Kutch Desert Wildlife Sanctuary in Great Rann of Kutch
- The site was occupied from 2650 BCE, declining slowly after about 2100 BCE. It was briefly abandoned and reoccupied until 1450 BCE.
- A coastal route existed linking Lothal and Dholavira to Sutkagan Dor on the Makran coast.
- Excavations unearthed large numbers of antiquities such as seals, beads, animal bones, gold, silver, terracotta ornaments, pottery and bronze vessels.
Architecture and Material Culture:
- The city of Dholavira has a rectangular shape and organization. Unlike Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, the city is composed to a pre-existing geometrical plan, of three divisions – the citadel, the middle town and the lower town.
- The acropolis (citadel) and the middle town had been further furnished with their own defence-work, gateways, built-up areas, street system, wells and large open spaces. The acropolis is the most carefully guarded.
- The towering “castle” stands in fair insulation and defended by double ramparts. Next to this stands a place called ‘bailey’ where important officials lived.
- Beyond the walls, yet another settlement has been found.
- The most striking feature of the city is that all of its buildings are built out of stone, whereas most other Harappan sites, including Harappa itself and Mohenjo-daro, are almost exclusively built out of brick.
- Dholavira is flanked by two storm water channels; the Mansar in the north, and the Manhar in the south.
- The kind of efficient system of Harappans of Dholavira, developed for conservation, harvesting and storage of water speaks eloquently about their advanced hydraulic engineering.
- Dholavira had massive reservoirs. They were used for storing the fresh water brought by rains or to store the water diverted from two nearby rivulets. This clearly came in wake of the desert climate and conditions of Kutch. A seasonal stream which runs in north-south direction of the site was dammed at several points to collect water.
- The inhabitants of Dholavira created sixteen or more reservoirs of varying size. Some of these took advantage of the slope of the ground within the large settlement.
- Reservoirs are cut through stones vertically. Reservoirs skirted the city while citadel and bath are centrally located on raised ground.
- A large well with a stone-cut trough to connect the drain meant for conducting water to a storage tank also found.
- Some of the seals found at Dholavira contained animal only figures, without any type of script and it is suggested that these type of seals represent early conventions of Indus seal making.
- Seven Hemispherical constructions were found at Dholavira, which were constructed over large rock cut chambers.
- Having a circular plan, these were big hemispherical elevated mud brick constructions. One of the excavated structures was designed in the form of a spoked wheel. The other was also designed in same fashion, but as a wheel without spokes.
- Although they contained burial goods of pottery, no skeletons were found except for one grave, where a skeleton and a copper mirror were found. A necklace of steatite beads strung to a copper wire with hooks at both ends, a gold bangle, gold and other beads were also found in one of the hemispherical structures.
- These hemispherical structures bear similarity to early Buddhist stupas.The kind of design that is of spoked wheel and unspoked wheel also mentioned in the Satapatha Brahmana and Sulba-sutras.
- A soft sandstone sculpture of a male with phallus erectus but head and feet below ankle truncated were found.
- Painted Indus black-on-red-ware pottery, square stamp seals, seals without Indus script, a huge sign board measuring about 3 m in length, containing ten letters of Indus script etc.
- One seated male figure made of stone has also been found, comparable to high quality two stone sculptures found at Harappa.
- Large black-slipped jars with pointed base were also found at this site.
- A giant bronze hammer, a big chisel, a bronze hand-held mirror, a gold wire, gold ear stud, gold globules with holes, copper celts and bangles, shell bangles, phallus-like symbols of stone, square seals with indus inscription and signs, a circular seal, carleian humped animals, pottery with painted motifs, goblets, dish-on-stand, perforated jars, terracotta tumblers in good shape, architectural members made of ballast stones, grinding stones, mortars, etc., were also found at this site.
- Stone weights of different measures were also found.
Language and script
- The Harrapans spoke an unknown language and their script has not yet been deciphered. The direction of the writing was generally from right to left. Most of the inscriptions are found on seals (mostly made out of stone) and sealings (pieces of clay on which the seal was pressed down to leave its impression). Some inscriptions are also found on copper tablets, bronze implements, and small objects made of terracotta, stone and faience.
- The seals may have been used in trade and also for official administrative work.
- One of the most significant discoveries at Dholavira was Dholavira Signboard. The Harappans had arranged and set pieces of the mineral gypsum to form ten large symbols or letters on a big wooden board. The inscription is one of the longest in the Indus script, with one symbol appearing four times, and this and its large size and public nature make it a key piece of evidence that the Indus script represents full literacy.
- A four sign inscription with big size letters on a sand stone is also found at this site, considered first of such inscription on sand stone at any of Harappan sites.
- Paleolithic site.
- The city is famous for its Hindu traditional culture and philosophy and the Mathas. The temples of these maths are generally regarded to be very beautiful. The mathura Das Ji ka jaav, the well built by the maharaja of Jodhpur in 12th Century.
- The name Didwana used to be ‘Deen Deewana’ as this is a mystic land of Islamic Sufi movement and epicenter. Abdul Ghaffar Rumi stayed here while traveling with Khwaja Mueenuldin Chishti. The Sufi triangle of Ajmer, Nagaur and Didwana gave a mystic journey of anyone.
- Akbar made ‘Qila Masjid’ in the loving memory of the footsteps of Khwaja Mueenuldin Chishti.
It is situated on western coast near Gujarat. It was an important port on trade routes of Arabian Sea of Indian Ocean.
Due to its strategic importance, there was a Battle of Diu in 1509 between Portugal and a combined force of Turkey, Egypt and the Sultan of Gujarat, Mahmud Begada. There were failed attempts by Portugueses many times to conquest Diu. In 1535 Bahadur Shah, the Sultan of Gujarat, concluded a defensive alliance with the Portuguese against the Mughal emperor Humayun, and allowed the Portuguese to construct the Diu Fort. The alliance quickly unraveled, and attempts by the Sultans to oust the Portuguese from Diu failed and he was killed by the Portuguese.
In 1538, Sofar, lord of Cambay, together with the Turkish Suleiman Pasha of Ottoman Empire, came to lay siege to Diu, and were defeated by Portuguese. A second siege was in 1546 was also repelled by the Portuguese.From the 18th century, Diu declined in strategic importance due to development of Bombay.
Diu remained in the possession of the Portuguese from 1535 until 1961, when it fell in the possession of the troops of the Indian Union, which invaded all of former Portuguese India under Operation Vijay.
(21) Dvarsamudra / Halebid / Halebidu / Dorasamudra
It is in Hassan district of Karnataka. It was the capital of the Hoysala kings in 10th-12th century, who became prominent in the region during the later period of the Chalukyas of Kalyani. Malik Kafur, the commander of Alauddin Khilji invaded it in 1310 A.D.
The temple complex comprises two main Hindu temples, the Hoysaleswara and Kedareshwara temple and two Jain basadi. The two Nandi images on the sides of the Hoysaleswara temple are monoliths. Soapstone was used for the construction of these temples.
The temple’s walls of the temple are covered with an endless variety of depictions from Hindu mythology, animals, birds and shilabalikas or dancing figures. The Jain basadi are equally rich in sculptural detail.
Dwarka is situated on sea coast in Gujarat. It is famous Vaishnava centre. It was selected as one of the four mathas by Shankaracharya. It is one of Chardham (four sacred Hindu pilgrimage sites), and is one of the Sapta Puri (seven most ancient religious cities) in the country.
Dwarka is mentioned in the copper inscription dated 574 AD of Simhaditya, the minister of Vallabhi under Maitraka.
The nearby Bet Dwarka Island is a religious pilgrim site. Recent under sea explorations in Dwarka make us believe that stone structures of the Harappan period are there which shows that it had its links with Harappan civilization. This city was a important trading point. Coastal erosion was probably the cause of the destruction of what was an ancient port.