(1) Lakhajoar

  • In Madhya Pradesh
  • Cave painting (animal paintings) of Mesolithic period
  • Other similar site in MP are Jaora, kathotia, Kharwar.

(2) Lahore

  • Lahore successively served as a regional capital of the empires of the Shahi kingdoms in the 11th century, the Ghaznavids in the 12th century, the Ghurid State in the 12th and 13th centuries and the Mughal Empire in the 16th century. From 1802 to 1849, Lahore served as the capital city of the Sikh Empire. In the mid-19th and early 20th century, Lahore was the capital of the Punjab region under the British Raj.
  • Lahore is referred to as the cultural heart of Pakistan. It is referred to as the “Mughal City of Gardens“.
  • Mughal structures such as the Badshahi Mosque, Lahore Fort, Shalimar Gardens, mausolea of Jehangir and Nur Jahan, Chauburji Gate, the walled city . 
  • Lahore is also home to many British colonial structures built in the Indo-Saracenic style, 
  • It is also an important religious centre as it is home to hundreds of temples, mosques, churches and shrines like Data Durbar Complex(one of the oldest Muslim shrines in South Asia. It houses the remains of a Sufi saint, Abul Hassan Ali Hajvery known as Daata Ganj Baksh, 11th century)
(3) Lalitgiri

  • Lalitgiri is a Buddhist complex in Odisha comprising major stupas and monasteries (viharas), similar to Ratnagiri and, together with Ratnagiri and Udayagiri, part of Puspagiri University.
  • The remains of a huge stupa, and relic caskets consisting four containers made of khondalite, steatite, silver and gold were discovered along with other important structure and archaeological remains.
  • Some relics bear resemblance to Gandhara School  of Art. The Ashokan Brahmi script, unique pieces of pottery, inscriptions from the Kushan era.
(4) Langhnaj
  • Langhnaj is a village in Mehsana district in the state of Gujarat, Bones of wild animals dating back to the Mesolithic period (2550-2185 BCE) have been excavated. The presence of wild cattle has also been suggested. The animals bones at Langhnaj suggest that the area was covered by a combination of savannah and forest with interspersed wetlands.
  • A historic temple of Pimpleshwar Mahadev, Saldi is 4 km from here. Another temple that is often attended by the Langhnaj community is Shiv-Sampraday-Nilkanth Mehadev temple. There is another temple that is a two story and three shikhar Jain-Derasar (temple)

(5) Lalkot

  • The Tomar dynasty founded Lal Kot near Mehrauli in 736. The Prithviraj Raso names the Tomar Anangpal as the founder of Lal Kot, whose name is inscribed on Iron Pillar of Delhi at Qutb complex, ascribed to Chandra or Chandragupta II.
  • The Chauhan kings of Ajmer conquered Lal Kot in 1180 and renamed it Qila Rai Pithora after Prithvi Raj Chauhan (also known as Rai Pithora). It was a thirteen-gated fort in Delhi. 

(6) Lauriya-Nandangarh

It is located in West Chmparan district of Bihar, near the Nepal border.

It contains the ruin of a huge stupa. The discovery of this stupa has brought a number of stone beads, terracotta figures, punch marked cast coins etc.

It is known for famous Ashokan pillar which is a single block of polished sandstone. The top is bell shaped with a circular abacus supporting the statue of a lion.

(7) Leh

  • Leh was an important stopover on trade routes along the Indus Valley between Tibet to the east, Kashmir to the west and also between India and China for centuries. The main goods carried were salt, grain, pashm or cashmere wool, indigo, silk yarn.
  • Little is actually known of the history of the region before the formation of the kingdom towards the end of the 10th century by the Tibetan prince, a grandson of the anti-Buddhist Tibetan king, Langdarma (838 to 841).Langdarma’s opposition to Buddhism had disappeared.
  • During the reign of Delegs Namgyal (1660–1685),the Nawab of Kashmir, which was then a province in the Mogul Empire, arranged for the Mongol army to temporarily leave Ladakh (though it returned later). As payment for assisting Delegs Namgyal in the Tibet-Ladakh-Mughal war of 1679–1684, the Nawab made demand to build a large Sunni Muslim mosque in Leh.The mosque reflects a mixture of Islamic and Tibetan architecture. 
  • The first Englishman to reach Leh was William Moorcroft (explorer) in 1820.
  • The first recorded royal residence in Ladakh, built at the top of the high Namgyal (‘Victory’) Peak overlooking the present palace and town, is the now-ruined fort built by King Tashi Namgyal in the final quarter of the 16th century CE.
  • The Namgyal (also called “Tsemo Gompa” = ‘Red Gompa’), a temple, is the main Buddhist centre in Leh. 
  • Chamba (Maitreya) and Chenresi (Avalokiteshvara) monasteries which are of uncertain date.
  • The royal palace, known as Leh Palace, was built by King Sengge Namgyal (1612–1642), presumably between the period when the Portuguese Jesuit priest, Francisco de Azevedo, visited Leh in 1631 and Sengge Namgyal’s death in 1642.

(8) Lekhakia

  • In Mirzapur district, UP.
  • Rock shelters with blade tools and microliths.

(9) Lepakshi

  • Lepakshi is a small village in the Anantapur District of Andhra Pradesh.
  • Lepakshi is historically and archaeologically significant, with three shrines dedicated to Shiva, Vishnu and Veerabhadra. These shrines were built during the Vijayanagara Kings’ period (1336–1646)
  • The place is also known for mural paintings of the Vijayanagar Kings. Many old Kannada inscriptions dating back centuries can also be seen on its walls.
  • The famous Veerabhadra temple dedicated to Veerabhadra is located here. Built by the brothers Viranna and Virupanna, the temple is a notable example of the Vijayanagar architectural style.It is renowned for its sculptures, which were created by the artisans of the Vijayanagara empire. The intricate mandapams of the temple has large pillars with life-size images of dancers, musicians and other sculptures. A huge monolithic granite Nandi bull (second largest monolith in India, after Gomateshwara), is also present near the temple. The ceilings are decorated by mural paintings. On the walls of this temple, several stories like the Mahabharatha and the Ramayana are sculpted. The paintings on the roof are done in natural pigments.
(10) Loteshwar
  • Loteshwar is an archeological site belonging to Indus Valley Civilisation located at Mahesana District, Gujarat. 
  • Loteshwar is recognised as ancient site occupied since sixth millennium BCE by hunter gatherer community and by fourth millennium BCE domestic animals like sheep and goat were also kept.
  • The excavation revealed two different cultural periods with Period I belonging to Monolithic culture and Period II belonging to culture with affinity to Harappan culture.

Period I

  • Period I, yielded large number of microlithic tools, flat sandstone palettes, grinding stones and hammer stones.Tools were made of chert, jasper, agate and quarts.
  • Two burials were also found.

Period II

  • Large number of pits which were invariably filled ashy soil, potshreds, animal bones and other insignificant materials were found.
  • Pottery collection from this site was predominated by gritty red ware and red ware, which were analogous in shape and style with similar pottery found at Nagwada and coarse redware and polycrome pottery found at Surkotada.Red ware was usually well fired and made of fine clay.


  • Bowls and pots with shades of black and red on cream/white background, coarse red ware and grey ware with incised designs, terrecotta pinched type lumps, mushtika type lumps, steatite micro beads, agate beads, carnelian beads etc. Terrecotta objects found at this site included a figurine, bangles, clay lumps with impressions of reed etc.
  • Pottery found at Loteshwar indicate a different type of culture, distinct from Amri-Nal pottery. Ceramics found here are recognised to be of different nature from those of early Harappan period and suggest earlier pot-making activity in this area.

Other findings are large amount of funeral remains in the form of skeletal remains of land animals like sheep, goat and cattle and fish as well as turtle.

(11) Lothal



Lothal is situated in Ahmedabad district of Gujarat on the bank of river Bhogava. It is one of the most prominent sites of the ancient Indus valley civilization dating from 2400 BCE.

Before the arrival of Harappan people (2400 BCE), Lothal was a small village. An indigenous micaceous Red Ware culture also existed, which is believed to be pre-Harappan.The indigenous people maintained a prosperous economy, attested by the discovery of copper objects, beads and semi-precious stones. Ceramic wares were of fine clay and smooth. A new technique of firing pottery under partly oxidising and reducing conditions was improved by them—designated black-and-red ware, to the micaceous Red Ware.

Harappans were attracted to Lothal for its sheltered harbour, rich cotton and rice-growing environment and bead-making industry.

The Lothal Harappan city was divided into a citadel and a lower town. The constructions were made of fire dried bricks, lime and sand mortar. The remains of the city give evidence to a sophisticated drainage system.

Important findings in Lothal Harappan site are: a Dockyard, Persian Gulf Seals, Shell ornaments maker’s shop, Bead maker’s shop, Metal worker’s shop, Fire altars, terracotta figurine of house, a warehouse, a merchant house, impression of cloth on some of the sealing, twelve bathrooms in the citadel area. An ivory scale from Lothal has the smallest-known decimal divisions in Indus civilisation.

Lothal’s dock—probably the world’s earliest known, connected the city to the course of the river on the trade route between Harappan cities in Sindh and the peninsula of Saurashtra.

Lothal was a thriving trade centre in ancient times, with its trade of beads, gems and valuable ornaments reaching the far corners of West Asia.

A coastal trade route had existed linking sites such as Lothal and Dholavira to Sutkagan Dor on the Makran coast.

Later Harappan culture:

The site continued to be inhabited, albeit by a much smaller population devoid of urban influences. While the trade and resources of the city were almost entirely gone, the people retained several Harappan ways in writing, pottery and utensils.

(12) Lucknow


  • From 1350 onwards, Lucknow and parts of the Awadh region were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate, Sharqi Sultanate, Mughal Empire, Nawabs of Awadh, the British East India Company (EIC) and the British Raj.
  • For about eighty-four years (from 1394 to 1478), Awadh was part of the Sharqi Sultanate of Jaunpur. Emperor Humayunmade it a part of the Mughal Empire around 1555. Emperor Jahangir (1569–1627) granted an estate in Awadh to a favoured nobleman, Sheikh Abdul Rahim, who later built Machchi Bhawan on this estate. It later became the seat of power from where his descendants, the Sheikhzadas, controlled the region.
  • The Nawabs of Lucknow, in reality the Nawabs of Awadh, acquired the name after the reign of the third Nawab when Lucknow became their capital. . The city became North India’s cultural capital, and its nawabs, best remembered for their refined and extravagant lifestyles, were patrons of the arts. Under their dominion, music and dance flourished, and construction of numerous monuments took place. Of the monuments standing today, the Bara Imambara, the Chota Imambara, and the Rumi Darwazaare notable examples.

(13) Lumbini

Lumbini is located inside Nepal on the Indo-Nepal border. According to Buddhist tradition, Queen Mayadevi gave birth to Siddhartha Gautama in 623 BCE who became Gautama Buddha.

Ashoka in the 20th year after his coronation visited this place and erected a pillar with an inscription in which he ordered the reduction of tax to one-eighth of the produce. This pillar, called Rummindei pillar, was raised in commemoration of Buddha’s birth and it is the chief source of our knowledge regarding the location of Lumbini.

Lumbini is a Buddhist pilgrimage site. Chinese pilgrims Faxian and Xuanzang made pilgrimages to the site in 5th and 7th century respectively.

Lumbini was granted World Heritage status by UNESCO.

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