- Kabul is over 3,500 years old and many empires have controlled the city which is at a strategic location along the trade routes of South and Central Asia.
- The area of the Kabul valley was ruled by the Medes before falling to the Achaemenids. There is a reference to a settlement called Kabura by the rulers of the Achaemenid Empire, which may be the basis for the future use of the name Kabura by Ptolemy (Greek Geographer).
- It became a center of Zoroastrianism followed by Buddhism and Hinduism. Alexander the Great explored the Kabul valley after his conquest of the Achaemenid Empire in 330 BC.
- It has been ruled by the Achaemenids, Seleucids, Mauryans, Kushans, Kabul Shahis, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, and Ghurids.
- Later it was controlled by the Mughal Empire until finally becoming part of the Durrani Empire with help from the Afsharid dynasty.
- Iron bearing megalithic site in MP.
- Similar other sites are Dhanora, Chirachori, Sonabhir, Handaguda, Nelakanker, Timmerwada, Sorara, Majagahan .
- It was under Magadha Empire, Guta rulers, Harshawardhana and later under Pal dynasty.
- Huen Tsang had passed through Arrah near Kaimur
- In 2012, erotic scultures were excavated in Baidyanath village.
(4) Kakoria (Near varanasi)
- A megalithic and chalcolithic site in eastern UP.
- OCW pottery. Pottery from Kakoria comparable to that from the late Harappan site.
- Near Cochin city.
- Birthplace of Adi Sankaracharya, Hindu theologian and exponent of the Advaita Vedanta philosophy who established first Matha in Sringeri, Karnataka.
(6) Kalako deray
- In Swat Valley.
- Grave sites and associated settlements of mid 2nd millennium BCE have been recovered.
- In Gurdaspur district in Punjab
- During the 14th-16th centuries, Kalanaur was a major urban centre and several historical events are associated with the town.
- Firuz Shah Tughluq (1352–88) built a beautiful palace on the banks of the Kiran rivulet.
- During the reign of Sayyad Mubarak Shah (1421–35), Kalanaur was ruled by the Khokhar tribe.
- In February 1556, Mughal Emperor Akbar, was enthroned in a garden near the Kalanaur by Bairam Khan. The masonry platform, where he was crowned can be visited even today, as can a mosque that was built during the his reign.
- Later, when the area was annexed by Ranjit Singh.
It is situated on left bank of the river Ghaggar in Hanumangarh district of Rajasthan. The site contains both pre-Harappan and Harappan remains, and therein can be seen the transition between the two cultures.
Although the pre-Harappan culture used copper and produced pottery, it had no writing system, and its ruins lack the orderly layout. Houses were made in mostly sun dried bricks.
The Harappan remains include a cemetery and a fortified citadel. The lower town was also a fortified. The fort was made of mud bricks. Due to grid-pattern of town planning, all houses opened out to at least two or three lanes. Houses were built of mostly mud bricks. Burnt bricks were used in drains, wells, bathing platforms, besides fire-altar.
Other important feature and findings:
- Functionally, pottery can be classified into household pots, religious and burial purposes. Mostly wheel made red pottery are found.
- Kalibangan is distinguished by its unique fire altars and earliest attested ploughed field. Fire altars suggest fire worship
- Rectangular as well as cylindrical seals are found.
- Terracotta banges, bull etc are found.
- Pit burial and urn burial has been found.
Kalinjar is a fortress-city in the Bundelkhand region located in Banda District of Uttar Pradesh, near the temple-city of Khajuraho. The fortress is strategically located on an isolated rocky hill at the end the Vindhya Range. The fortress contains several temples.
It served several of Bundelkhand’s ruling dynasties, including the Chandela dynasty of Rajputs in the 10th century, and the Solankis of Rewa. The Chandela Rajputs after their defeat at the hands of Prithviraj in 1182 moved their capital from Mahoba to Kalinjar.
It was here that Sher Shah Suri fought his last battle. Sher Shah, although captured the fort, was killed by a bomb splinter.
In 1812 AD, it came under the possession of the English.
Kalpi is in Jalaun district of Uttar Pradesh, on the bank of Yamuna. It is in Bundelkhand region.It was founded by King Vasudeva in the 4th century.
In 1196 it fell to Lieutenant of Muhmmad Ghuri, Qutb-ud-din Aybak. During Akbar’s reign, Kalpi was a governor’s seat and had a mint for currency.
About the middle of the 18th century it passed into the hands of the Marathas. It was captured by the British in 1803.
There are several architectures and religiou places are found here. For example: Vyas temple, 84 Gumbaj, Sufi Khankahs,
Recently a prehistoric site (Palaeolithic) has been found here.
It is located in Dehradoon district of Uttar Pradesh. It is a site of Major Rock Edict of Ashoka engraved in Brahmi script. Inscription shows that it was part of Mauryan Empire inn 3rd century BCE.
Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Sikh Guru, stayed near Kalsi (in Patola Sahib) for several years and practised the art of warfare, after the death of his father Guru Tegh Bahadur.
- Some of the epigraphies mentions that there was a palace for the pandya official called Ettimannan. At the foot of the Kalugumalai a large urn-burial cemetery was found.
It is situated on western coast of Indian in Maharashtra. It was an important town and assumed special significance during 5th and 8th century A.D. It was an important trading centre.
The city has witnessed numerous attempts of conquest from foreign armies like the Mughals, the Portuguese and the British.
Before British, Marathas under Shivaji had occupied it. Decaying structures of the Maratha kingdom and traces of fortification still exist like the Durgadi fort.
(15) Kalyani / kalyana / Basavakalyan
- The Western Chalukya Empire ruled most of the western Deccan, South India, between the 10th and 12th centuries. This Kannadiga dynasty is sometimes called the Kalyani Chalukya after its regal capital at Kalyani, today’s Basavakalyan in Karnataka and alternatively the Later Chalukya from its theoretical relationship to the 6th-century Chalukya dynasty of Badami.
- Basavakalyana was ruled by Western Chalukyas, Kalachuris, Yadavas of Devagiri, Bahamani Sultanate (Bidar, Gulbarga), Bidar Sultanate, Bijapur Sultanate, Mughals and Hyderabad Nizams.
- Kalyana was renamed as BasavaKalyana in memory of Vishwaguru Basavanna, a an Indian philosopher, statesman, Kannada poet and a social reformer who established Anubhava Mantapa (spiritual democracy) in 12th century India.
- The name Assam comes from “Ahom” the dynasty ruled here from 13th century up to 19th century. Before that it was known as Pragyotishpur / Pragjyotisha and during the period of Ahoms conquest it was known as Kamrup.
- Pragjyotispur was the capital of Kamrupa(900 B.C TO 1699A.D)
- The earliest mention of the city of Pragjyotishpur may be traced to the Mahabharata and Ramayana.
- ‘Prag’ means ‘Eastern’ and ‘Jyotisa’ means ‘light’. ‘Pragjyotispur’ means “the city of eastern light or astrology”. The ‘Nabagraha’ temple at Guwahati, which is dedicated to the nine planets or grahas speaks volumes for the development of the science in early Assam.
- For nearly 2,500 years between 900 BC to 1699 AD Assam was in the midst of world commerce. Centrally situated on the land routes from eastern Kamboj to western Kashgar and from northern China to southern Ceylon. Chang Kien, a Chinese explorer traces his country’s trade links with Assam as far back as 100 BC. According to the Periplus of the Eastern Sea, Assam silk like Muga and ‘Pat’ reached the kingdoms of Egypt and Rome and was as famous as Chinese silk and Tibetian pasmina. The weavers of Pragjyotisha thus made their country wealthy.Assam has been often referred to as the land of the Golden Sands.
- The Kamakhya Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to the goddess Kamakhya, The first epigraphic notice of Kamakhya is found in the 9th-century Tezpur plates of Vanamalavarmadeva of the Mlechchha dynasty.The Kamarupa kings from Indra Pala to Dharma Pala were followers of the Tantrik tenet and about that period Kamakhya had become an important seat of Tantrikism.As a result of this royal patronage, Kamakhya soon became a renowned centre of Tantrik sacrifices, mysticism and sorcery. That system of mystic Buddhism, known as Vajrayana and called “Sahajia cult”, found its way into Kamarupa in tenth century.It is found from Tibetan records that some of the eminent Buddhist professors in Tibet, of the tenth and the eleventh centuries, hailed from Kamarupa.
- In ancient times this town reached its highest glory as the capital of the Panchala Kingdom
(18) Kampili (Near Hampi, see Part-H)
- Kampili was a chiefdom on the banks of the Tungabhadra river in Karnataka during the 13th century.
- The founder of the chiefdom was a Hoysala commander, Singeya Nayaka-III (1280–1300 AD) who declared himself independent and created a small chiefdom. He was succeeded by his son Kampilideva in 1300 who faced the wrath of the Hoysala Empire and the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri but finally fell to the invasion from the north by the forces of Muhammad bin Tughluq, the Sultan of Delhi.
- With the muslim hold on Kampili weakening, Hoysala king Vira Ballala-III took advantage and occupied Hampi and appointed Harihara and Bukka to administer Kampili. So the small powerful kingdom soon became Vijayanagara Empire that soon came to power (1336 A.D.) from this territory grew into one of the great empires of India and ruled Southern India for over 200 years.
(19) Kamatapura / Kamatanagara
- Kamata-Kamatapura, a kingdom founded in the 13th century when one Niladhvaja of the Kehn dynasty of Assam ruled from the capital city Kamatanagara (Kamatapura) situated on the bank of the Dharla.
- The Khen dynasty replaced the Pala dynasty in the 13th century.
- The Khen dynasty, however, came to an end when husain shah invaded the kingdom of Kamata in 1498
(20) Kanauj (Kanyakubja)
Kanyakubja is modern Kannauj located on the banks of the river Ganga in Uttar Pradesh. It was the capital of the Maukharis and Harshavardhana.
After the death of Harshavardhana in 7th century, Kannuaj remained a focal point for the struggle between the Palas, the Pratiharas and the Rashtrakutas. The Tripartite struggle to capture Kannauj continued between the 8th and 10th centuries.
Till the arrival of the Muslims, Kannauj was the most prosperous and the largest cultural centre in Northern India. At the time of the invasion of Muhammad Ghaznavi, Kannauj was being ruled by Rajapala of Gurjara Pratihara dynasty. When Md. Ghori invaded India, it was being ruled by Raja Jai Chand who had enmity with Chauhan ruler Prithviraj. It was finally captured by Delhi Sultanate.
In the battle of Kannauj, Sher shah had inflicted a defeat on Humayun.
Kanchipuram is in Tamil Nadu. Kanchipuram had served as an Early Chola capital. Later it became the capital of the Pallava Kingdom between the 4th and 9th centuries and acquired fame as a centre of art and architecture and learning under their rule. It has a number of educational institutions called Ghatikas. It was also a centre of the religious and literary activity of the Vaishnavites and Saivites Bhakti saints, Alvars and Nayanars, who were patronized by the Pallava rulers.
The city’s historical monuments include the Kailasanathar Temple (built by Pallava King Rajasimha in 8th century) and the Vaikuntha Perumal Temple.
The archaeological excavations suggest that Kanchi was an important commercial centre during the Satavahana period. It is attested by the discovery of 15 Satavahana coins, pieces of Rouletted ware associated with the Romans, terracotta coin-mould, copper and iron objects etc.
The city was a religious centre education for Jainism and Buddhism between the 1st and 5th centuries.
The city is well known for its hand woven silk sarees.
(22) Kandahar / Qandahar (See Part- Q)
- Kandhar fort is situated in Nanded district of Maharashtra.
- In 1649, Shah Jahan aimed to recapture Kandhar and sent Aurangzeb with 60,000 cavalry and 10,000 infantry. The resultantSiege of Kandhar lasted for three months and 20 days
- Historically known as Nagarkot and Trigarta, Kangra was founded by Katoch Kshatriya Rajputs of Chandervanshi Lineage . The Katoch Rajas had a stronghold here, with a fort and rich temples.
- The temple of Devi Vajreshwari was one of the oldest and wealthiest in northern India.
- Mahmud of Ghazni took the fort in 1009 and from one of the temples carried off a vast treasure. In 1360 Kangra was again plundered, by Feroz Shah Tughluq.
- After invading and occupying Kumaon and Garhwal in 1790, the Gurkhas invaded Kangra in 1806 and occupied it until the British took it back in 1815.
(25) Kanheri (Location near Mumbai)
- The Kanheri Caves constitute a group of rock-cut monuments that are located north of Borivali on the western outskirts of Mumbai, India.
- The Kanheri Caves demonstrate the Buddhist influence on the art and culture of India. Kanheri comes from the Sanskrit Krishnagiri, which means black mountain.They were chiseled out of a massive basaltic rock outcropping.
- These caves date from the first century BCE to the 10th century CE. One hundred and nine caves have been carved from the basalt. Unlike the elegant splendor of the adjacent Elephanta Caves, the earlier cells are spartan and unadorned(not decorated).
- Each cave has a stone plinth for a bed. A congregation hall with huge stone pillars contains the stupa, a Buddhist shrine.
- Most of the caves are used as the Buddhist viharas, meant for living, studying, and meditating. The larger caves were chaityas, or halls for congregational worship; are lined with intricately carved Buddhist sculptures, reliefs and pillars; and contain rock-cut stupas for congregational worship. The Avalokiteshwara is the most distinctive figure.
- many inscriptions and epigraphs are found at Kanheri, which include the inscriptions in Brahmi, Devanagari and 3 Pahlavi epigraphs found in Cave 90. One of the significant inscriptions mentions about the marriage of Satavahana ruler Vashishtiputra Satakarni with the daughter of Rudradaman I.
- Cave number 34 has unfinished paintings of Buddha on the ceiling of the cave.
- The large number of viharas demonstrates the well organized establishment of Buddhist monks.
- This establishment was also connected with many trade centers, such as the ports of Sopara, Kalyan, Nasik, Paithan and Ujjain.
- Kanheri was a University center by the time the area was under the rule of the Maurayan and Kushan empires.
It is located near Bharatpur in Rajasthan situated about 10 miles away from the N-W of Fathpur Sikri. The Battle of Khanwa was fought on March 17, 1527 between Rana Sanga and Babur in which Babur defeated Rana Sanga. It was the second major battle fought by Babur after the Battle of Panipat after which Mughals dominated India up to 17th century.
It is located in southernmost tip of Indian peninsula in Tamilnadu. Historically, it had been in control of Cholas, Cheras, Pandyas and Nayakas.
It has been a famous centre for trade and commerce. In ancient times, Ptolemy’s geography describes commercial relations between India and Alexandria, the chief eastern emporium of the Roman Empire. He identified Kanyakumari along with the Gulf of Mannar as a center for pearl fishery.
Another ancient Greek book, Periplus of the Erythraean Sea indicates that the coast from Barygaza (Baroch) had a general southward direction down to and far beyond Cape Komari (kanyakumari).
A temple is dedicated here for virgin goddess Kanyakumari.
Hinduism, Islam, Christianity and Jainism have greatly contributed to the wealth and literary heritage of this place.
(28) Kapilvastu / Kapilavastu
It is located in Nepal along the Indian border. It is about 25 kilometres northwest of Lumbini, a UNESCO World Heritage Site that is believed to be the birthplace of Gautama Buddha. The famous Rumindei inscription of Ashoka marks the site of the birth of Buddha at Lumbini.
In ancient times Kapilavastu was the capital city of the Shakya kingdom. King Suddhodana and Queen Mayadevi lived at Kapilavastu gave birth to Siddartha who became Gautam Buddha.
Chinese pilgrims Faxian and Xuanzang made pilgrimages to the site in 5th and 7th century respectively.
Kapilvastu was also important trade centre in ancient time.
- The Karla Caves are a complex of ancient Indian Buddhist rock-cut cave shrines located in Karlinear Lonavala, Maharashtra.
- The shrines were developed over two periods – from the 2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD, and from the 5th century AD to the 10th century.
- The oldest of the cave shrines is believed to date back to 160 BC, having arisen near a major ancient trade route, running eastward from the Arabian Sea into the Deccan.
- Buddhists, having become identified with commerce and manufacturing through their early association with traders, tended to locate their monastic establishments in natural geographic formations close to major trade routes so as to provide lodging houses for travelling traders.
- The caves were historically associated with the Mahāsāṃghika sect of Buddhism and later with Hinduism.
- A temple dedicated to the goddess Ekveera, who is worshipped most notably by the Koli community of mumbai.
- The main cave features a large, intricately carved chaitya, or prayer hall, dating back to the 1st century BC. This is among the largest rock-cut chaityas in India.The hall features sculptures of both males and females, as well as animals such as lions and elephants.
- Within the complex are a great many other carved chaityas, as well as viharas, or dwelling places for the caves’ monks.
- A notable feature of these caves is their arched entrances and vaulted interiors. The central motif is a large horseshoe arch. There is an Ashokan pillar at the front, with a closed stone facade and torana in between.
- Karnal sprang into prominence in 1739 when Persian emperor Nadir Shah defeated the numerically superior, but inferior Mughal army in less than three hours and captured the Mughal ruler Muhammad Shah in the Battle of Karnal, laying the way open for his humiliating complete sack and looting of Delhi, the Mughal capital
- Raja Gopal Singh of Jind seized Karnal in 1763, and the Marathas established themselves at Karnal in 1785. Raja Gajpat Singh of Jind built a fort in 1764 AD. It is said that it had 10 gates.
(34) Kashi (Same as Banaras)
Varanasi is situated on the north bank of the Ganga in Uttar Pradesh. It is related to Hinduim, Buddhism and Jainism.
It was known as Kasi in 6th century BC when it was ne of the Mahajanapadas and was annexed by the Magadhan Emoire during Ajatasatru. Kasi was a great centre of trade and industry in ancient times.
Nearby Dear Park at Sarnath, Buddha has delivered his first sermon. Chinese Pilgrim Hieun Tsang had visited the city in 7th century AD and attested that the city was a centre of religious and artistic activities.
Parshvanath Jain temple, dedicated to 23rd Tirthankara Parshvanath is located here.
In medieval times, several major saints of Bhakti movements like Kabir, Ravidas, and Tulsidas were related to Varanasi.
Hindus believe that death in Kasi brings salvation which makes it one of the holiest place for Hindus.
It is one of the 12 Jyotirlinga sites in famous Kasi Vishwanath temple and also a Shaktipeeth in Durga temple for Hindus.
It was also a historic educational and art centre. The Banaras Gharana of Hindustani Classical Music was developed here.
- A town on the banks of the Katni River in Madhya Pradesh.Katni is a conglomeration of culture from three different cultural states viz. Mahakausal, Bundelkhand, and Baghelkhand.
- A statue of Jain Teerthankar Shantinath. There is some scripture of 12th century.
- A stone has been found in which 10 incarnation of Lord Vishnu has been painted. There are so many statues of Narayan Shaishayani (bed) and sun (Lord Surya).
- Aalha and Udal has fought with king of Madhogarh in Tigavan. A Temple of 1500 year old can be seen, which is a flat ceiling temple. There is a statue of lord Narsing and on other side of wall there is Jain Treethankars Parshvanath statue.
- 33 km from Katni, Vijaraghavgarh is a historical place. A temple of lord Vijayaraghavgarh and the Vijayaraghavgarh fort
- Roopnath is a pilgrimage place 3 km from Bahoriband there is Panchlingam statue of lord Shiva and called as Roopnath. Sita Kund, Ram Kund, Lakhman Kund
- There is verse painted on big stone that may be of 232B.C. some order like is written in Pali language for following Buddhism. It describes that 2½ years of Ashoka following Buddhism but nothing has been achieved so far.
- Many scriptures are found in this area there were so many temples the only remain is Varah temple of lord Vishnu. There is one more temple around one km from Bilhari of lord Shiva
- 3 km from katni around 14 big colored painted rock are scattered they are all of prehistoric time. Ancient human painted all the animals found around here viz. Cow, Bull, Deer, Dog, Goat, Pork Hippopotamus etc. Hippopotamus is believed to be here in the ancient time. There are paintings available about fighting tools and man and woman, tree, flower. These painting are believed of 10000 BC to 4000BC some of the picture are of middle age 700 BC to 200 BC
It is located on the bank of river Yamuna in Uttar Pradesh. It was the capital of Vatsa, a Mahajanapada of the 6th century B.C. One of the Ashokan Pillars is found here. It was a major centre of trade in ancient India.
The Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang visited the city in the 7th century A.D.
Excavations show the pre-historic settlements dating back to 2nd millinum B.C.
The excavation also unearthed painted grey ware pottery, trace of iron etc pointing to a later Vedic settlement.
(40) Kaveripattinam (or Puhar)
Puhar is in Nagapattinam district of Tamilnadu. It was an important sea port during the Sangam age and a great centre of trade. It also city served as the capital of the early Chola kings.
Puhar is located near the end point north bank of the Kaveri River, aside the sea coast. Evidence of foreign trade through the port is found here.
Puhar is mentioned in the Periplus of Ereythrean Sea. Puhar is also mentioned in Silapathikaram, a literature book of Sangam Age. It also menions general plan of Puhar.
The ancient city of Puhar was destroyed by the sea around 300 BC. This could have been the effects of sediment erosion and periodic tsunamis.
Ancient Pottery dating back to the 4th century BCE have been discovered from Puhar.
- It is in Balia district on Saryu river
- It yielding remains of early CE such as street, lanes, a two room house and a underground structure
- BRW, BSW, NBPW, GW, RW, & Kushana Periods
Khajuha is a historical town in Fatehpur District of Uttar Pradesh. Khajuha witnessed one of the fiercest battles ever fought in India. At the battle, which took place on 5th January 1658, Aurangzeb decisively won over his brother, Shah Shuja.
Here a large beautiful garden called Badshahi Bagh which was constructed by Aurangzeb to celebrate his victory over Shuja.
- The Khajuraho temples were built about 35 miles from the medieval city of Mahoba,the capital of Chandela dynasty, in Kalinjar region.
- The Khajuraho group of temples belong to Vaishnavism, Saivism and Jainism – nearly a third each. All three types of temples were under construction at about the same time in late 10th century during the Chandela dynasty.Most temples were built during the reigns of the kings Yashovarman and Dhanga. Khajuraho temple site had 85 temples by 12th century. Of these, only about 20 temples have survived
- The temples are famous for their Nagara-style architectural symbolism and their erotic sculptures. In each group of Khajuraho temples, there were major temples surrounded by smaller temples – a grid style that is observed to varying degrees in Hindu temples in Angkor Wat, Parambaran and South India.
- The Khajuraho temples are made of sandstone, with a granite foundation.The builders didn’t use mortar: the stones were put together with mortise and tenon joints and they were held in place by gravity.
- The largest surviving Saiva temple is Khandarya Mahadeva,(built in the reign of King Ganda from 1017-1029 AD, decorated with a profusion of sculptures with intricate details, symbolism and expressiveness of ancient Indian art) while the largest surviving Vaishnava group includes Chaturbhuja and Ramachandra.
- Jain Temples : Chausath jogini temple features 64 jogini, while Ghantai temple features bells sculptured on its pillars.
- In the 13th century, after the army of Delhi Sultanate, under the command of Qutb-ud-din Aibak, attacked and seized the Chandela kingdom. About a century later, Ibn Battuta, the Moroccan traveller in his memoirs about his stay in India from 1335 to 1342 AD, mentioned visiting Khajuraho temples.
Art and Sculptures:
- The Khajuraho temples feature a variety of art work, of which 10% is sexual or erotic art outside and inside the temples.The erotic arts are part of Hindu tradition of treating kama as an essential and proper part of human life, and its symbolic or explicit display is common in Hindu temples.
- Over 90% of the art work at the temple is about daily life and symbolic values in ancient Indian culture.
- Kibbanahalli is a pre-historic site. Archaeologists believe that this site along with Biligere belong to the Early stone age. Hand-axe, guillotine chisels and many other Palaeolithic specimens found.
(47) Kili-Ghul Mohammad
(53) Koldihwa (In Allahabad)
- It is situated near Bhubaneshwar in Odissa and about 30 km north-easterly direction along the sea-coast from Puri. It is famus for the Sun Temple which was built in 9th century AD was reconstructed by the Ganga King Narsinngh Dev in the 13th century.
- The temple is magnificiently conceived as a gigantic sun chariot with 12 pairs of exquisitely ornamented wheels. The colossal temple originally consisted of a sanctum with a lofty curvilinear Shikhara, a Jagamohana (mandapa) and a detached dancing hall built in the same axis, besides a number of subsidiary shrines and structures- all enclosed within a compound wall with 3 entrance gates.
- Many sculptures of birds and animals, deities and Apsaras and Terracotta figurines depicting sensuality are depicted in the temple. They represent Khajuraho style of sculpture.
- Konark temple was called black pagoda by Portuguese.
(59) Kot Diji
- The ancient site at Kot Diji, Khairpur district, was the forerunner of the Indus Civilization.
- Early Harappan towns (4000–3000 BCE): The development of these farming communities in different parts of Baluchistan and Lower Sind, ultimately led to urbanization. The earliest fortified town to date is found at Rehman Dheri, dated 4000 BCE in NWFP close to River Zhob Valley. Other fortified towns found to date are at Amri (3600–3300 BCE) and Kot Diji in Sind and at Kalibangan (3000 BCE), India at the Hakra River.
- The Kot Diji Fort, formally known as Fort Ahmadabad, in Kot Diji was built between 1785 to 1795 by Mir Sohrab Khan Talpur,
Kot Diji culture (3300–2600 BCE):
- The earliest occupation of this site is termed ‘Kot Dijian’, which is pre-Harappan, or early formative Harappan.At this stage, bronze was already used, but only for personal ornaments. Also, potters wheel was already used.
- The Early Harappan phase consists of two clearly defined areas.
- Citadel on high ground for the elites separated by a defensive wall with bastions at regular intervals.
- Outer area, or the city proper consisted of houses of mud bricks on stone foundations. Pottery found from this site have design with horizontal and wavy lines, or loops and simple triangular patterns.
- Other objects found are pots, pans, storage jars, toy carts, balls, bangles, beads, terracotta figurines of mother goddess and animals, bronze arrowheads. Well fashioned stone implements were also discovered.
- The interesting find at Kot Diji is a toy cart, which shows that potter’s wheel lead to wheels for bullock carts.
- There are obvious signs of massive burning of over the entire site, including both the lower habitation area and the high mound (the fortified town), which were also observed at other Early Harappan sites: Gumla,Amri,Naushero. Signs of cleavage were observed at Early Harappan phase Period I at Kalibangan.
- Important trading centre for spices and commercial crops, especially rubber.
- During British rule in India, Kottayam remained part of the Princely State of Travancore.
- Slave traders prevailed at Thirunakkara, Kottayam in the 17th Century.
(65) Kumhrar / Kumrahar (Location same as pataliputra, Part P)
Kumhrar or Kumrahar is the remains of an ancient city of Pataliputra, Bihar.
The archaeological remains of the Mauryan period (322–185 BCE), has been discovered here, this include the ruins of a hypostyle 80-pillared hall. The excavation finding here dates back to 600 BCE, and marks the ancient capital of Ajatshatru,Chandragupta and Ashoka, and collectively the relics range from four continuous periods from 600 BCE to 600 CE.
Assembly Hall of 80-pillars:One pillar of polished stone, and a very large number of fragments were found. The excavators were able to trace 80 ‘pits’ of ash and rublle on the site which marked the position in which other pillars must once have stood, giving the hall name – “Assembly hall of 80 pillars”. All the ruins are attributed to the Mauryan period.
Anand Bihar: The foundations of the brick Buddhist monastery were excavated, apart from wooden beams and clay figures.
Arogya Vihar: found during the excavations, the presence of an Arogya Vihar headed by Dhanvantari, an early Indian medical practitioner, considered the source of Ayurveda.
Durakhi Devi emple: Excavation revealed a detached piece of a carved stone railing of a stupa, with female figures on both the sides, giving it the name, ‘Durukhi’ or ‘Durukhiya’ (double faced) Devi, a specimen of Shunga art 2-1st century BCE. The figures are shown grabbing and breaking branches of trees, are Shalabhanjikas (the breaker of branches), the young women under a fertililty ritual. These images are presently worshipped in a temple-like structure.
(67) Kundagrama (Same as Basukunda in Part-B)
It is located in Deoria district of Uttar Pradesh. It was one of the cities of the Mallas Mahajanapadas in 6th century BC. This is an important Buddhist Pilgrim place because Buddha passed away here in 483 BC.
Magathan Emperor Ashoka has visited this place and built a stupa here. Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang had visited this place in 7th century AD.