Mains History Paper 1986

IAS Mains History 1986

Paper -I
Section A

1. Write short essays of not more than 200 words on any three of the following:

(a) Democratic elements in the political system of the early Vedic period.


(b) The role of guilds in the economic life of India from c. 200 B: C. to c. A. 0. 300

(c) The significance of the policy o matrimonial alliances for the expansion and consolidation of the Gupta empire.

(d) The contributions of the Pallavas to Indian architecture.

2. ‘On circumstantial evidence Indra stands convicted’. Explain, and discuss briefly different views about a sudden end of the Indus Valley civilization. How would you explain the presence of those elements in Indian culture and civilization which are found to have existed in the Indus Valley period?

3. Discuss critically the relative importance of the different source for the history of the Mauryan period.

4. Harsha is described as ‘the lord of the whole of north India’. Determine the extent of his empire and discuss his political relations with Sasanka, Bhaskaravarman and Pulakesin II.
Section B

5. Marks any fifteen of the following places on the map supplied to you. Also give brief descriptive notes on places marked on the map:

(i) Agra
(ii) Ahmadnagar
(iii) Anhilware
(iv) Attock
(v) Bidar
(vi) Cambay
(vii) Champaner
(viii) Chittor
(ix) Chunar
(x) Daultabad
(xi) Dvarasamudra
(xii) Gaurs
(xiii) Gwalior
(xiv) Jaunpur
(xv) Kalinjar
(xvi) Koil
(xvii) Madura
(xviii) Mandu
(xix) Panipat
(xx) Rameshwaram
(xxi) Ranthambhor
(xxii) Sarhind
(xxiii) Sasaram
(xxiv) Sailkot
(xxv) Surat
(xxvi) Tanjore
(xxvii) Thatta
(xxviii) Ujjain
(xxix) Vijayanagara
(xxx) Warangal

6. ‘The period of Delhi Sultans witnessed the emergence of Indo-Persian culture’ Discuss the statement with reference to developments in the fields of language, literature, art and social life.

7. Bring out the significance of the reign of Sher Shah in the history of India.

8. Account for the rise of the Marathas as a political power. How did they influence the course of history?

Paper – II

Section A (Modern India)
1. Comment on any three of the following statements in about 200 words each:

(a) ‘Upon the whole, then, I conclude that the treaty of Bassein was wise, just and a politic measure.’

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(b) ‘Ram Mohan thus presents a most instructive and inspiring study for the New India of which he is the type and pioneer.’

(c) ‘The roots of Moplah discontent were clearly agrarian….’

(d) ‘It is sometimes asked by Ruling Chiefs, as well as by the public in India and in Europe what our policy towards Native States is. I can tell you that the basis of the policy was laid in Queen Victoria’s Proclamation of 1858 and repeated in the Coronation message of His Majesty the King Emperor.’

2. Bring out the pattern of commercialization of agriculture in the 19th century. Was it a forced process for the vast majority of poorer peasants?

3. Discuss the basic features of the judicial administration under the East India Company. Did the British introduce the modern concept of the rule of law in India?

4. Account for the rise and growth of Left-wing within the Congress. Did Jawaharlal Nehru believe in a socialistic approach to Indian and world problems and if so why?

Section B (World History)

5. Comment on any three of the following statements in about 200 words each:

(a) ‘The novelty in sixteenth century mercantilism its extension from city to nation and the
transfer of its chief agency from local guilt to national monarch.’

(b) ‘Napoleon was the child of the Revolution, but in many ways he reversed the aims and
principles of the movement from which he sprang …….’

(c) ‘If I could save the Union without freeing-any slave, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that.’

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(d) ‘Under Mustafa Kemal’s dictatorship; Turkey was rapidly nationalized.

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6. What is meant by the ‘rediscovery of ancient civilization’? Show how the ‘New Learning’ was a major element in the beginning of Modern Europe.

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7. Discuss the Self-strengthening movement in China.

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8. What led to the formation of the Berlin-Rome Tokyo axis? Indicate its impact on international politics.

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