(Prelims) IAS General Studies – 2011 (Part 7)
61. Which one of the following is not a feature of “value added tax” ?
(a) It is multi-point destination-based system of taxation.
(b) It is a tax levied on value addition at each stage of transaction in the production- distribution chain.
(c) It is a tax on the final consumption of goods or services and must ultimately be borne by the consumer.
(d) It is basically a subject of the central government and the state governments are only a facilitator for its successful implementation.
- The value added tax was introduced as an indirect tax into the Indian taxation system from 1 April 2005. The existing General Sales Tax Laws were replaced with the Value Added Tax Act (2005) and associated VAT Rules. Haryana became the first State in the country that had adopted the taxation on 1 April 2003. As of 2 June 2014, VAT has been implemented in all the states & union territories of India
- VAT is for state and CENVAT is for centre
62. A “closed economy’’ is an economy in which ?
(a) The money supply is fully controlled.
(b) Deficit financing takes place.
(c) Only exports take place.
(d) Neither exports nor imports take place.
63. When the bark of a tree is removed in a circular fashion all around near its base, it gradually dries up and dies because ?
(a) Water from soil cannot rise to aerial parts.
(b) Roots are starved of energy.
(c) Tree is infected by soil microbes.
(d) Roots do not receive oxygen for respiration.
The question wants you to know about the Xylem and Phloem and their functions. Phloem is the innermost layer of the bark and its job is to do the transport of soluble organic material made during photosynthesis (photosynthate) , the process is called translocation. So, whatever that is produced in the leaves , if not sent to the parts such as roots, they will be starved of energy and ….:) Water will keep rising till we don’t cut the tree’s xylem parts. Correct Option B
64. The “New START” treaty was in the news. What is this treaty ?
(a) It is a bilateral strategic nuclear arms reduction treaty between the USA and the Russian federation.
(b) It is a multilateral energy security cooperation treaty among the members of the east Asia summit.
(c) It is a treaty between the Russian federation and the European union for the energy security cooperation.
(d) It is a multilateral cooperation treaty among the BRICS countries for the promotion of trade.
- New START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) is a nuclear arms reduction treaty between the United States of America and the Russian Federation with the formal name of Measures for the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms. It was signed on 8 April 2010 in Prague, and, after ratification, entered into force on 5 February 2011. It is expected to last at least until 2021.
- New START replaced the Treaty of Moscow (SORT), which was due to expire in December 2012. In terms of name, it is a follow-up to the START I treaty, which expired in December 2009, the proposed START II treaty, which never entered into force.
65. Three of the following criteria have contributed to the recognition of western Ghats , Sri Lanka and Indo-Burma regions as hotspots of biodiversity :
1. Species richness.
2. Vegetation density.
4. Ethno-botanical importance.
5. Threat perception.
6. Adaption of flora and fauna to warm and humid conditions.
Which three of the above are correct criteria in this context ?
(a) 1,2, and 6.
(b) 2,4 and 6.
(c) 1,3 and 5.
(d) 3,4 and 6.
- A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region that is both a significant reservoir of biodiversity and is threatened with destruction.
- To qualify as a biodiversity hotspot on Myers 2000 edition of the hotspot-map, a region must meet two strict criteria: it must contain at least 0.5% or 1,500 species of vascular plants as endemics, and it has to have lost at least 70% of its primary vegetation.
- To qualify as a biodiversity hotspot (on Myers 2000 edition of the hotspot-map) a region must meet two strict criteria:
- It must have at least 0.5% or 1,500 vascular plants as endemics — which is to say, it must have a high percentage of plant life found nowhere else on the planet. A hotspot, in other words, is irreplaceable.
- It must have 30% or less of its original natural vegetation. In other words, it must be threatened.
Around the world, 35 areas qualify as hotspots. They represent just 2.3% of Earth’s land surface, but they support more than half of the world’s plant species as endemics — i.e., species found no place else — and nearly 43% of bird, mammal, reptile and amphibian species as endemics. (60 percent of the world’s plant, bird, mammal, reptile, and amphibian species.)
66. Human activities in the recent past have caused the increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, but a lot of it does not remain in the lower atmosphere because of ?
1. Its escape into the outer stratosphere.
2. The photosynthesis by phytoplankton in the oceans.
3. The trapping of air in the polar ice caps.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?
(a) 1 and 2.
(b) 2 only.
(c) 2 and 3.
(d) 3 only.
- In addition to providing food and oxygen for nearly all life on Earth, phytoplankton help to regulate inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) in the atmosphere. During photosynthesis, carbon dioxide and water molecules are used to make sugar for energy. The process of incorporating inorganic carbon into organic carbon (glucose and other biologically useful compounds) is called carbon fixation, and is part of the biological carbon pump
- As carbon fixation and oxygen production are part of the same process, the extent of phytoplankton’s participation is on the same scale. Phytoplankton consume a similar amount of carbon dioxide as all land plants combined. While phytoplankton can pull carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or the ocean, it will have a similar effect. CO2 that is taken from the water is replaced by CO2 from the atmosphere, thanks to Henry’s law (the dissolved gas content of water is proportional to the percentage of gas in the air above it. This consumption helps keep carbon dioxide levels in check, reducing its presence.
- Hence in spite of being heavy gas, CO2 is not mainly found in lower atmosphere.
- The world oceans are by far the largest sink of anthropogenic CO2 on our planet. Until now, they have swallowed almost half of the CO2 emitted through the burning of fossil fuels.
- The CO2 fertilization of marine plankton can have a positive effect on climate change in the future. The greenhouse gas consumed by plankton and removed from the surface ocean when the dying cells sink to depth makes way for the uptake of more CO2. In a way, the tiny organisms act as a biological conveyer belt for the transport of carbon dioxide out of the surface and into the deep ocean. What appears to be a blessing for the atmospheric greenhouse effect may prove to be a curse for deep ocean ecosystems. Decomposition of the increased biomass will consume more oxygen, a major problem for marine animals that occupy deep habitats. Another consequence of the biological conveyer belt is the accelerated rate of ocean acidification in the deep ocean due to more rapid transport of CO2 to depth.
67. In the context of ecosystem productivity, marine upwelling zones are important as they increase the marine productivity by bringing the ?
1. Decomposer microorganisms to the surface.
2. Nutrients to the surface.
3. Bottom-dwelling organisms to the surface.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?
(a) 1 and 2.
(b) 2 only.
(c) 2 and 3.
(d) 3 only.
- Upwelling often happens where wind blows along a coastline. The wind causes the water at the ocean surface to move perpendicular to it, away from the coast, because of a process called Ekman transport. When surface water moves away from the coast, water from deeper in the ocean rises up and takes its place.
- The water that is moved up to the surface is usually cold and rich in nutrients, which come from the rotting bodies of dead sea creatures that sunk into deep water. When the deep water gets to the surface, these extra nutrients are snatched up by plankton that floats in the ocean. The number of plankton grows where there is upwelling. Tiny animals gobble up the plankton and fish eat the tiny animals. This means that upwelling areas are full of marine life. About half the fish caught in the world comes from places where there is upwelling.
- Upwelling also happens as a part of El Niño (ENSO) events in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Ecuador and Peru. This has an impact on weather, changing the pattern of precipitation in many areas of the world.
68. If a tropical rain forest is removed, it does not regenerate quickly as compared to a tropical deciduous forest. This is because ?
(a) The soil of rain forest is deficient in nutrients.
(b) Propagules of the trees in a rain forest have poor viability.
(c) The rain forest species are slow-growing.
(d) Exotic species invade the fertile soil of rain forest.
- Despite the growth of vegetation in a tropical rainforest, soil quality is often quite poor. Rapid bacterial decay prevents the accumulation of humus. The excessive rain washes away most the minerals and neutrients. Leaves and that kind of thing decay very fast so there is no build up of organic matter in the soil like there is in other forrests. The constant and high volume of precipitation in a rain forest leaches all the nutrients out of the soil. The only nutrients avalible for the trees and shrubs are from the rotting leaves and trees that fall to the forest floor. It is a very delicate cycle. That is why, once the forest has been removed for farming, nothing will grow without artificial fertilizers.
- One reason the rain forest soil is so poor is that most of the nutrients are stored in the plants themselves. In any forest, dead organic matter falls to the ground, providing valuable nutrients for new growth. In cooler or drier climates, the nutrients build up in the soil. But in a rain forest, with its abundance and variety of life, those nutrients are reabsorbed almost as fast as they’re deposited. Also, the trees in tropical rain forests are often evergreens and so very few leaves actually fall to the ground.
- Most trees have roots near the surface, because there are insufficient nutrients below the surface; most of the trees’ minerals come from the top layer of decomposing leaves and animals. If rainforest trees are cleared, rain can accumulate on the exposed soil surfaces, creating run-off and beginning a process of soil erosion.
69. The Himalayan Range is very rich in species diversity. Which one among the following is the most appropriate reason for this phenomenon ?
(a) It has a high rainfall that supports luxuriant vegetative growth.
(b) It is a confluence of different bio-geographical zones.
(c) Exotic and invasive species have not been invasive species have not been introduced in this region.
(d) It has less human interference.
70. With reference to India, consider the following central acts :
1. Import and export (control) act, 1947.
2. Mining, and mineral development (regulation) act, 1957.
3. Customs act, 1962.
4. Indian forest act, 1927.
Which of the above acts have relevance to/bearing on the biodiversity conservation in the country ?
(a) 1 and 3 only.
(b) 2,3 and 4 only.
(c) 1,2,3 and 4.
(d) None of the above acts.