(Prelims) IAS General Studies Solved Paper With Explanations – 2011 (Part- 8)

(Prelims) IAS General Studies – 2011 (Part 8)

71. Karl Marx explained the process of class struggle with the help of which one of the following theories ?

(a) Empirical liberalism.

(b) Existentialism.

(c) Darwin’s theory of evolution.

(d) Dialectical materialism.

Answer: d

  • Dialectical materialism is a philosophy of science and nature, based on the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. It was inspired by dialectic and materialist philosophical traditions. The main idea of dialectical materialism lies in the concept of the evolution of the natural world and the emergence of new qualities of being at new stages of evolution.

72. A layer in the earth’s atmosphere called ionosphere facilities radio communication. Why ?

1. Presence of ozone causes the reflection of radio waves to earth.

2. Radio waves have a very long wavelength.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a) 1 only.

(b) 2 only.

(c) Both 1 and 2.

(d) Neither 1 nor 2.

Answer: d

  • The ionosphere is a region of Earth’s upper atmosphere, from about 60 km to 600 km  altitude, and includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere. It is distinguished because it is ionized by solar radiation. It plays an important part in atmospheric electricity and forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere. It has practical importance because it influences radio propagation to distant places on the Earth.
  • The ionosphere is filled with a high concentration of free electrons and gases. The electrified ions that fill the whole of the ionospheric layer that completely surrounds the Earth reflect radio waves from all directions to every part of the world. According to their frequencies and ionization, radio waves are completely absorbed in the ionosphere and they are either partly refracted and distributed to the outer space or are reflected and returned to the world. The electromagnetic waves within a range of 30 MHz can return to Earth after being reflected by the ionosphere.

  • Ionosphere is formed at different ionizing levels in different layers, known as D, E, F1, and F2. The ionization level in the outer layers of the ionosphere is higher than that of the inner layers. The D layer, the innermost layer of the ionosphere, is closest above the Earth and is characterized by low ion densities and low collision frequencies of electrons and ions with neutral particles. Serving to absorb most energy below 7 MHz, this layer is ionized during the daylight hours, completely disappearing at night. It reaches full ionization level just after sunrise and is at its peak at noon time, immediately losing energy after sun-set.
  • The majority of HF (High frequency and shortwave) transmissions are propagated by the F2 layer, which is the main reflecting layer for HF communications both at day and at night. Reaching its maximum level of ionization just after midday, the layer is at its minimum just before sunrise. The F2 layer can be used for 10-20 MHz during the day and 3-8 MHz during the night.

73. Both foreign direct investment (FDI) and foreign institutional investor (FII) are related to investment in a country. Which one of the following statements best represents an important difference between the two ?

(a) FII helps bring better management skills and technology. While FDI only brings in capital.

(b) FII helps in increasing capital availability in general, while FDI only targets specific.

(c) FII flows only into the secondary market, in general, while FDI only targets specific sectors.

(d) FII is considered to be more stable than FDI.

Answer: b

Difference between FDI and FII

  • Both FDI and FII is related to investment in a foreign country. FDI or Foreign Direct Investment is an investment that a parent company makes in a foreign country. On the contrary, FII or Foreign Institutional Investor is an investment made by an investor in the markets of a foreign nation.
  • In FII, the companies only need to get registered in the stock exchange to make investments. But FDI is quite different from it as they invest in a foreign nation.
  • The Foreign Institutional Investor is also known as hot money as the investors have the liberty to sell it and take it back. But in Foreign Direct Investment, this is not possible.FII can enter the stock market easily and also withdraw from it easily. But FDI cannot enter and exit that easily. This difference is what makes nations to choose FDI’s more than then FIIs.
  • Foreign Direct Investment only targets a specific enterprise. It aims to increase the enterprises capacity or productivity or change its management control. In an FDI, the capital inflow is translated into additional production. The FII investment flows only into the secondary market. It helps in increasing capital availability in general rather than enhancing the capital of a specific enterprise.
  • The Foreign Direct Investment is considered to be more stable than Foreign Institutional Investor. FDI not only brings in capital but also helps in good governance practises and better management skills and even technology transfer. Though the Foreign Institutional Investor helps in promoting good governance and improving accounting, it does not come out with any other benefits of the FDI.
  • While the FDI flows into the primary market, the FII flows into secondary market. While FIIs are short-term investments, the FDI’s are long term.

74. A genetically engineered form of brinjal, known as the Bt-brinjal, has been developed. The objective of this is ?

(a) To make it pest-resistant.

(b) To improve its taste and nutritive qualities.

(c) To make it drought-resistant.

(d) To make its shelf-life longer.

Answer: a

  • The Bt brinjal is a suite of transgenic brinjals (also known as an eggplant or aubergine) created by inserting a crystal protein gene (Cry1Ac) from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis into the genome of various brinjal cultivars. The insertion of the gene, along with other genetic elements such as promoters, terminators and an antibiotic resistance marker gene into the brinjal plant is accomplished using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation.
  • The Bt brinjal has been developed to give resistance against lepidopteron insects, in particular the Brinjal Fruit and Shoot Borer.
  • When fruit and shoot borer larvae feed on Bt brinjal plants, they ingest the Bt protein Cry1Ac along with plant tissue. In the insect gut, which is alkaline with a pH >9.5, the protein is solubilized and activated by gut proteases. The Bt protein binds to specific receptor proteins present in the insect membrane, resulting in pore formation in the membranes. This leads to disruption of digestive processes, paralysis, and subsequent death of the fruit and shoot borer larvae

75. With reference to “Aam Admi Bima yojna’’ consider the following statements ?

1. The member insured under the scheme must be the head of the family or an earning member of the family in a rural landless house-hold.

2. The member insured must be in the age group of 30 to 65 years.

3. There is a provision for free scholarship insured who are studying between classes 9 and 12.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a) 1 only.

(b) 2 and 3 only.

(c) 1 and 3 only.

(d) 1,2 and 3.

Answer: c

  •  AAM ADMI BIMA YOJANA, a Social Security Scheme for rural landless household was launched on 2nd October, 2007. The head of the family or one earning member in the family of such a household is covered under the scheme. The premium of Rs.200/- per person per annum is shared equally by the Central Government and the State Government. The member to be covered should be aged between 18 and 59 years.
  • A separate fund called “Aam Admi Bima Yojana Premium Fund” has been set up by Central Govt. to pay the Govt. contribution. Fund is maintained by LIC.


On natural death Rs. 30000/-
On Death due to accident/on permanent total disability
due to accident (loss of 2 eyes or 2 limbs)
Rs. 75000/-
On partial permanent disability due to accident (loss of one eye or one limb) Rs. 37500/-
  • A free add-on scholarship benefit for the children (maximum two) at the rate of Rs. 100/- per month studying between 9th to I2th Standard is also available under the Scheme.

76. Regular intake of fresh fruits and vegetables is recommended in the diet since they are a good source of antioxidants. How do antioxidants help a person maintain health and promote longevity ?

(a) They activate the enzymes necessary for vitamin synthesis in the body and help prevent vitamin deficiency.

(b) They prevent excessive oxidation of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in the body and help avoid unnecessary wastage of energy.

(c) They neutralize the free radicals produced in the body during metabolism.

(d) They activate certain genes in the cells of the body and help delay the ageing process.

Answer: c

  • Antioxidants are important disease-fighting compounds. Scientists believe they help prevent and repair the stress that comes from oxidation, a natural process that occurs during normal cell function. A small percentage of cells becomes damaged during oxidation and turns into free radicals, which can start a chain reaction to harming more cells and possibly disease. Unchecked free radical activity has been linked to cancer, heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease.
  • Note: Even though some fruits and vegetables have a high antioxidant content, the body does not absorb all of it. The concept is called bioavailability. Bioavailability has to do with absorption or metabolism in the gut. What’s absorbed will be impacted by the mechanical structure of different antioxidants in food — if they’re tied up with fiber or if they have sugar molecules attached.

77. Regarding the Indus valley civilization , consider the following statements ?

1. It was predominantly a secular civilization and the religious element, though present, did not dominate the scene.

2. During this period, cotton was used for manufacturing textiles in India.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a) 1 only.

(b) 2 only.

(c) Both 1 and 2.

(d) Neither 1 nor 2.

Answer: c

  • Mehrgarh cotton which is the earliest example of Cotton cultivation in the world

78. The lower Gangetic plain is cahracterised by humid climate with high temperature throughout the year. Which one among the following pairs of crops is most suitable for this region ?

(a) Paddy and cotton.

(b) Wheat and jute.

(c) Paddy and jute.

(d) Wheat and cotton.

Answer: c

  • The lower deltaic plains of the Ganges and Brahamputra rivers that is Charecterised by swamps and sundarbans. So, the people out there grow Paddy and Jute

79. What could be the main reason/reasons for the formation of African and Eurasian desert belt ?

1. It is located in the sub-tropical high pressure cells.

2. It is under the influence of warm ocean currents.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct in this context ?

(a) 1 only.

(b) 2 only.

(c) Both 1 and 2.

(d) Neither 1 nor 2.

Answer: a

  • Hot desetrts are located between 20°30° latitude in both the hemisphere on the western coast of the continents. They are also called Tropical Deserts. They are different from the midlatitude deserts and cold deserts, hot deserts are found in High pressure belts along the Tropics in the trade winds region. Distribution Of Hot Deserts: (i)Asia Thar desert and the Arabian Desert; (ii)Africa The Sahara and the Kalahari; (iii)N. America Lower California and Arizona states of USA; (iv)S. AmericaAtacama desert; (v)Australia The Great Australian desert. The Sahara desert of Africa is the biggest hot desert of the world. The Hot desert regions are located in the subtropical high pressure belts, which are not favourable regions for rainfall.

There are three main causes of deserts:

  1. Most of the world deserts are made by the equatorial wind belts. At the equator warm air is always rising. This created wind belts that blow north and south away from the equator. When air descends at the tropics of cancer and capricorn it is too dry for clouds to form. No clouds means no rain producing Deserts. E.g. the Sahara desert
  2. Rainshadow also produce Deserts. Any moisture in the air will fall as air passes high mountain ranges, so land beyond the mountains receives little or no rain. The Gobi desert is produced by Rainshadow.
  3. Cold Currents also produce deserts.
    The southwestern coasts of Africa and South America are swept by cold currents upwelling from the ocean floor. These currents cool the air that passes over them, causing the water in the air to fall as rain before it reaches the land. The Namib and Atacama desert have formed because of these cold currents.

    The upwelling effect
    The Upwelling Effect

The Eurasian Belt is related to cold currents NOT warm current, so statement 2 is incorrect. Lets discuss the first statement. Its worth note that the desert occurs in 2 broad belts viz. at 20-30° north and south of the Equator , along the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. The Desert areas normally develop under the influence of the quite permanent high-pressure areas. We all know that the earth rotates around its axis at about 1676 km per hour at the equator, but the speed is almost zero at poles. The hot air at the equator would rise and spread north and south before cooling and it would condense and release its moisture over the tropical zones. This leads to development of an equatorial zone of low atmospheric pressure. The two tropical zones are at high pressure and nearer to the poles are 2 low-pressure belts of cold. Now, as the denser air sinks towards the ground to the 2 subtropical high-pressure belts, wind is created which is hot and completely lacking of moisture. This blows across Sahara, the Middle East and the North America. So statement 1 is correct. Correct Option : B

80. The jet aircrafts fly very easily and smoothly in the lower stratosphere. What could be the appropriate explanation ?

1. There are no clouds or water vapour in the lower stratosphere.

2. There are no vertical winds in the lower stratosphere.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct in this context ?

(a) 1 only.

(b) 2 only.

(c) Both 1 and 2.

(d) Neither 1 nor 2.

Answer: b

  • Based on temperature the atmosphere can be divided into 4 main regions.. troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere.
  • From the surface upto an altitude of abt 10-16 Km, the temperature decreases with increase in altitude. This is because here the atmosphere is almost transparent to the sun’s energy & is instead heated from below, by the earth’s surface. This region is the troposphere.
  • Above this lies the stratosphere, where the temperature increases with increase in altitude. It extends to an altitude of about 50Km. Airflow in the stratosphere is much less turbulent than in the troposphere. Here the air doesn’t flow up and down, but flows parallel to the earth in very fast moving air streams. This is the layer where most jet planes fly.
  • Due to difference in their temperature gradients, the tropospheric air does not mix into the stratospheric air. The lack of mixing & less turbulence makes the stratosphere more layered or ‘statified’.
  • Maximum clouds form in the Earth’s troposphere, but clouds form in the stratosphere and mesosphere also.

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