(GS Paper 3) Technology missions in agriculture

Technology missions in agriculture

Technology mission on cotton

  • The Govt. of India launched the Centrally Sponsored Scheme of “Technology Mission on cotton” in February 2000. The objective of TMC was as under:
  1. To improve the yield and quality of cotton, particularly in respect of staple length, strength, etc. through development of better cotton varieties as well as through improved seeds, and integrated water, nutrient and pest management technologies.
  2. To increase the income of the cotton growers by reducing the cost of cultivation as well as by increasing the yield per hectare through proper transfer of technology to the growers.
  3. To improve the quality of processing of cotton, particularly in respect of trash, contamination, etc. by improving the infrastructure in the market yards for cotton and by modernizing the existing ginning & pressing factories and setting up new units.
  • To fulfill the above objectives 4 Mini Missions are established under TMC as follows:

Mini Mission

Objective Nodal Agency


Cotton Research and Technology generation Indian.Council of  Agriculture Research


Transfer of Technology and Development Ministry of Agriculture


Improvement of Marketing
Ministry of Textiles


Modernisation/Upgradation of G & P Factories Ministry of Textiles

Technology Mission on Oilseeds, Pulses and Maize (TMOPM)

  • The Technology Mission on Oilseeds was launched by the Central Government in 1986 to increase the production of oilseeds to reduce import and achieve self-sufficiency in edible oils.
  • Subsequently, pulses, oil palm and maize were also brought within the purview of the Mission in 1990-91, 1992 and 1995-96 respectively.
  • In addition, the National Oilseeds and Vegetable Oils Development (NOVOD) Board also supplement the efforts of TMOPM by opening of newer areas for non-traditional oilseeds. IT is promoting Tree Borne Oilseeds (TBO)s.

The schemes implemented under TMOPM are:

  1. Oilseeds Production Programme (OPP)
  2. National Pulses Development Project (NPDP)
  3. Accelerated Maize Development Programme (AMDP)
  4. Post Harvest Technology (PHT)
  5. Oil Palm Development Programme (OPDP)
  6. National Oilseeds and Vegetable Oils Development Board (NOVOD)

Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil Palm and Maize

  • In order to provide flexibility to the States in implementation based on regionally differentiated approach, to promote crop diversification and to provide focused approach to the programmes, the schemes of Oilseeds Production Programme, Oil Palm Development Programme, National Pulses Development Project and Accelerated Maize Development Programme was merged into one Centrally Sponsored Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil Palm and Maize (IPOPOM) during the 10th Five Year Plan which is being implemented with effect from 1st April, 2004. The scheme is being implemented by 14 major growing States for oilseeds and pulses and 15 States for Maize and in 10 States for oil palm.

The ISOPOM has the following special features:

  1. Flexibility to the States to utilize the funds for the scheme/crop of their choice.
  2. Annual action plan to be formulated by the State Governments for consideration and approval of the Government of India.
  3. Flexibility to the States for introducing innovative measures or any special component to the extent of 10 per cent of financial allocation.
  4. Involvement of private sector by the State Governments for the implementation of the programme with a financial cap of 15 per cent.
  5. Flexibility for inter component diversion of funds upto 20 per cent for non-seed components only and
  6. Diversion of funds from seed components to non-seed components with the prior approval of the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation.
  • Implementation of oilseeds production programme helped in increasing the production of oilseeds from 108.30 lakh tones in 1985-86 to 324 lakh tonnes during 2013-14. The pulses production in the country increased from 128.60 lakh in 1989-90 to 185 lakh tonnes in 2014-15.
  • Despite India being the largest producer [18.5 million tons] and processor of pulses in the world also imports around 3.5 million tons annually on an average to meet its ever increasing consumption needs of around 22.0 million tons.
  • The area under Oil palm increased from 8,585 ha. at the end of 1992-93 to 26,178 ha. in 2008-09. Actual production of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFBs) during 2008-09 is 355,480.36 MTs yielding around 59,007.40 Metric tonnes of Crude Palm Oil (CPO).

Jute Technology Mission (JTM)

  • The Jute Technology Mission was been launched during 2006 jointly by the Ministry of Textiles and Ministry of Agriculture to achieve the following objectives:
  1. Develop high yielding varieties to improve productivity and acceptability in markets:
  2. Improve retting practices to get better quality fibre;
  3. Transfer of cost effective technologies to the farmers;
  4. Create strong market linkages;
  5. Expand the scope for marketing of diversified jute products within the country and abroad.
  • It has 4 mini Missions:


Mini Mission Activity Related organisations
Mini Mission – I Research activities on Jute ICAR (DARE)
Mini Mission – II Development/extension of raw jute agriculture Ministry of Agriculture(DAC), Govt. of India , State Govt.
Mini Mission – III Marketing of raw jute Ministry of Textiles

Govt. of India

Mini Mission – IV Processing, utilisation and industrial aspects of raw jute Ministry of Textiles,

Govt. of India

Technology Mission on Coconut

Why the Mission?

  • Traditionally, coconut was grown for edible oil. It served as an ingredient for various industrial applications too. The changed food habits and availability of other cheaper edible oils both in the edible and industrial sectors, however, have brought out a drastic decline in the use of coconut oil in these areas.
  • On account of heavy imports of cheaper vegetable oil, especially of the Palmolein, the price of coconut oil has been depressed despite the large-scale price support operations undertaken. The Price Support Scheme could not make much impact in pushing up the price level and was not beneficial to the farmers as expected. In this context, it was realized that diversification of coconut derived products and value addition could only help the coconut growers in getting remunerative prices.
  • The coconut crop has also been affected by severe pests and debilitating diseases like root-wilt. It was realized that a major initiative should be started towards controlling the pests and diseases in coconut to improve its productivity and promote product diversification on better value realization from various coconut products. This will help the small and marginal farmers who depend on coconut for their livelihood to realize better returns.
  • In this context to protect the interest of the coconut growers, Technology Mission on Coconut was launched.
  • The Mission should converge and synergize all the efforts through vertical and horizontal integration of existing programmes and address the problems and bridge the gaps through appropriate programmes in Mission Mode to ensure adequate, appropriate, timely and concurrent action. This would help develop a mechanism which makes coconut farming competitive and ensures reasonable returns.

Goals and Objectives

  • To establish convergence and synergy among numerous ongoing governmental programmes in the field of coconut development in order to bring in horizontal and vertical integration of these programmes
  • To ensure adequate, appropriate, timely and concurrent attention to all the links in the production, post harvest and consumption chain.
  • To maximise economic, ecological and social benefits from the existing investment and infrastructure created for coconut development
  • To promote economically desirable diversification and value addition to generate skilled employment.
  • To disseminate technologies using participatory approach through demonstration and promotion to address the gaps in a mission mode

Mission Approach

  • Mission approach is to evolve an approach for technology support which shall have synergy and convergence to address the existing gaps.
  • Existing schemes of Coconut Development Board and other institutes will continue with existing pattern and shall be converged in a manner that vertical and horizontal integration are achieved.
  • Issues which have not been addressed in existing schemes to meet the challenges.
  • Issues relating to development of technologies for management of insect pests and disease affected gardens, product diversification and market promotion, its demonstration and promotion for adoption.
  • Missing links in existing programmes with focused attention to achieve the goals of the mission

Mission for Integration Development of Horticulture (MIDH)

  • A Centrally Sponsored Scheme of MIDH has been launched for the holistic development of horticulture in the country during XII plan.
  • The scheme, which has taken take off from 2014-15, integrates the ongoing schemes of National Horticulture Mission, Horticulture Mission for North East & Himalayan States, National Bamboo Mission, National Horticulture Board, Coconut Development Board and Central Institute for Horticulture, Nagaland.
  • The interventions under MIDH will have a blend of technological adaptation supported with fiscal incentives for attracting farmers as well as entrepreneurs involved in the horticulture sector.
  • The strategy of the MIDH will be on production of quality seeds and planting material, production enhancement through productivity improvement measures along with support for creation of infrastructure to reduce post harvest losses and improved marketing of produce with active participation of all stake holders, particularly farmer groups and farmer producer organizations.

Sugar Technology Mission

  • The Mission mode project under the Sugar Technology Mission launched in the year 1994, aims towards sharper and focussed technological upgradation in selected sugar factories to accomplish, the cost effectiveness of sugar production through improvement in plant efficiency, energy saving etc.
  • In addition to the above, the focus is also on improving the capital output ratio through optimisation and identification of user friendly technologies.

National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture

  • Considering adverse impacts of climate change on the socio- economic development of the country, India proposed the National Action Plan on Climate change in 2008. The National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) is one of the eight missions introduced to address risks associated with the impacts of climate change on Agriculture and to make appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies for ensuring food security, equitable access to food resources, enhancing livelihood opportunities and contributing to economic stability at the national level.National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
  • Sustainable agriculture is the practice of farming using principles of conserving an ecological balance by avoiding depletion of natural resources. .  Sustainable agriculture integrates three main goals- Environmental (environmental health), Social (social and economic equity) and Economic.

Priority Areas as indicated in NMSA under the NAPCC are;

Rainfed Agriculture
  1. Development of drought and pest-resistant crop varieties.
  2. Improving methods to conserve soil and water to ensure theirs optimal utilization.
  3. Generate awareness through stakeholder consultations, training workshops and demonstration exercises for farming communities, for agro-climatic information sharing and dissemination.
  4. Financial support to enable farmers to invest in and adopt relevant technologies to overcome climate related stresses.
Risk Management
  1. Strengthening existing agricultural and weather insurance mechanisms.
  2. Development and validation of weather derivative models by insurance providers. Ensure access to archival and current weather data for this purpose.
  3. Creation of web-enabled, regional language based services for facilitation of weather based insurance.
  4. Development of GIS and remote-sensing methodologies for detailed soil resource mapping and land use planning.
  5. Mapping vulnerable eco-regions and identification of pest and disease hotspots.
  6. Developing and implementation of region-specific contingency plans based on vulnerability and risk scenario.
Access to Information
  1. Development of regional database of soil, weather, genotypes, land-use patterns and water resources.
  2. Monitoring of glacier and ice-mass, impacts on water resources, soil erosion, and associated impacts on agricultural production in mountainous regions.
  3. Providing information on off-season crops, aromatic and medicinal plants, greenhouse crops, pasture development, agro-forestry, livestock and agro-processing.
  4. Collation and dissemination of block-level data on agro-climatic variables, land use and socio-economic features and preparation of state-level agro-climatic atlases.
Promoting Data Access 
  1. To improve and expand the data bases on (a) Soil profile, (b) Area under cultivation, Production and yield, and (c) Cost of Cultivation.
  2. To digitize data, maintain database of global quality, and streamline the procedure governing access there to
  3. To build public awareness through “National Portal” on agricultural Statistics.
Use of Bio – technology
  1. Genetic engineering to convert C-3 crops to the more carbon responsive C-4 crops to achieve greater photosynthetic efficiency for obtaining increased productivity at higher levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and to sustain thermal stresses.
  2. Development of strategies for low input sustainable agriculture by producing crops with enhanced water and nitrogen use efficiency which may also result in reduced emissions of greenhouse gases, and crops with greater tolerance to drought, high temperature, submergence and salinity stresses.
  3. Development of nutritional strategies for managing heat stress in dairy animals to prevent nutrient deficiencies leading to low milk yield and productivity.
  4. Development of salt tolerant and disease resistant fresh water fish and prawn.

National Mission on Agricultural Extension and Technology

National Food Security Mission

  • The National Development Council (NDC) in its 53rd meeting held on 29th May, 2007 adopted a resolution to launch a Food Security Mission comprising rice, wheat and pulses to increase the production of rice by 10 million tons, wheat by 8 million tons and pulses by 2 million tons by the end of the Eleventh Plan (2011-12). Accordingly, a Centrally Sponsored Scheme, ‘National Food Security Mission’ (NFSM), was launched in October 2007.
  • The Mission is being continued during 12th Five Year Plan with new targets of additional production of food grains of 25 million tons of food grains comprising of 10 million tons rice, 8 million tons of wheat, 4 million tons of pulses and 3 million tons of coarse cereals by the end of 12th Five Year Plan.
  • The National Food Security Mission (NFSM) during the 12th Five Year Plan will have five components:
  1. NFSM- Rice
  2. NFSM- Wheat
  3. NFSM- Pulses
  4. NFSM- Coarse cereals
  5. NFSM- Commercial Crops.

National Mission on Food Processing

  • Ministry of Food Processing Industries (MFPI) had launched Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS)- National Mission on Food Processing (NMFP) during the 12th Plan (2012-13). Further, the Govt. of India have approved continuation of the Mission during the remainder of 12th Five Year Plan (2013-17).
  • The basic objective of NMFP is decentralization of implementation of Ministry’s schemes, which will lead to substantial participation of State Governments / UTs.
  • The NMFP contemplates establishment of a National Mission as well as corresponding Missions in the State and District level.
  • NMFP is likely improve significantly the Ministry’s outreach in terms of planning, supervision and monitoring of various schemes with the following objectives
  1. To promote facilities for post-harvest operations including setting up of food processing industries.
  2. To undertake decentralization of the schemes so far operated by the Ministry of Food Processing Industries (MoFPI) in order to take into account the requirements suitable to the local needs.
  3. To augment the capacity of food processors working to up scale their operations through capital infusion, technology transfer, skill Up gradation and hand holding support.
  4. To support established self-help groups working in food processing sector to facilitate them to achieve SME status.
  5. Capacity development and skill up gradation through institutional training to ensure sustainable employment opportunities to the people and also to reduce the gap in requirement and availability of skilled manpower in food processing sector.
  6. To raise the standards of food safety and hygiene in order to meet the norms set up by FSSAI.
  7. To facilitate food processing industries to adopt HACCP and ISO certification norms.
  8. To augment farm gate infrastructure, supply chain logistics, storage and processing capacity.
  9. To provide better support system to organized food processing sector.

National Mission for Protein Supplement

  • It is one of the six sub-schemes being implemented as sub-schemes under Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY).
  • The National Mission for Protein Supplements was launched in 2011-12. It took up activities to promote animal based protein production through livestock development, dairy farming, piggery, goat rearing and fisheries in selected blocks.

National Saffron Mission

  • It is one of the six sub-schemes being implemented as sub-schemes under Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY).
  • Kashmir has the proud privilege of producing the finest quality saffron, which is famous for its colour and flavour all over the world. The Central Government launched the National Saffron Mission (NMS) in 2010-11.

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