History Optional Paper-1 Solution – 1979: Q.1 (Map based question)

Q.1 Mark any fifteen of the following on the map supplied to you and give descriptive notes on them:

(1) Avanti
(2) Asirgarh
(3) Amaravati
(4) Aihole
(5) Brahmagiri
(6) Daulatabad
(7) Fathrpur Sikri
(8) Golkonda
(9) Gangaikondacholapuram
(10) Hampi
(11) Jaunpur
(12) Kapilavastu
(13) Kanauj
(14) Kanchipuram
(15) Lothal
(16) Paithan
(17) Panipat
(18) Ranthambhor
(19) Rupar
(20) Samugarh
(21) Salsette
(22) Tamralipti
(23) Takshashila
(24) Talikota
(25) Somnath
(26) Kalinjar
(27) Mandu
(29) Murshidabad
(30) Surat


(1) Avanti

Avanti was one of the 16 Mahajanpadas and by the 6th century BC, it is mentioned in Buddhist literature as one of the four great powers along with Vatsa, Kosala and Magadha.
Avanti  was  divided  into  two  parts  by  the  Vindhyas,  the  northern  part  had  its capital  at  Ujjayini  and  the  southern  part  had  its  centre  at  Mahishmati  (or Maheshwar, on the north bank of the Narmada River).
Ujjain lay on the main trade route between North India and Deccan going from Mathura via Ujjain to Mahismati.
The Northern black polished ware found their way to the northern Deccan from the Gangetic plains through Ujjain.
King Pradyota of Avanti was contemporary to Buddha. Avanti was defeated by Shishunaga, the king of Magadha and became part of the Magadha. During the reign of Mauryan King Bindusara, Prince Ashoka was the provincial governor of Ujjain.

(2) Asirgarh

Asirgarh Fort in Khandesh, built by Asa Ahir of the Ahir dynasty, is situated in the Satpura Range near the city of Burhanpur, in Madhya Pradesh. Since the fortress commands a pass through the Satpuras connecting the valleys  of  the  Narmada  and  Tapti  rivers,  one  of  the  most  important  routes from northern India to the Deccan, it was known as the “key to the Deccan“. There is an ancient Shiva temple below the fort.
Initially it was in the possession of Rajput kings but later was annexed by Alauddin Khalji. From 1370 to 1600 AD, it was governed by Faruukhi Kings. In 1601, Akbar invaded and captured it.This was a significant achievement of the Mughals, for Khandesh was used as a base for the future conquest of the Deccan. Marathas got it after Mughals.

(3) Amaravati

It is situated in Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh on the bank of Krishna River. It was the capital of Satavahanas (2nd century BCE to 3rd century CE). After the decline of Satavahanas, Ikshvakus, later Pallava kings and Cholas ruled over the region.
The region between Krishna and Godavari rivers was an important place for Buddhism with Amaravati being one of them. It has Buddhist Stupa and Mahachaityas, inspired by Mahasamghika sect of Buddhism, with marble and limestone sculptures. Buddhist Stupa was probably built during the reign of Ashoka. Its carved panels tell the story of Buddha.
Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang visited Amaravati in 7th century and wrote a glorious account of the Stupa, Viharas and monasteries that existed.
Ancient  School  of  Arts:  Amaravati  art  was  as  one  of  the  three  major  styles  or schools  of  ancient  Indian  art,  the  other  two  being  the  Gandhara  style  and  the Mathura  style. Amaravati  art  form  evolved  and  flourished  for  nearly  six  centuries commencing  from  200-100  BC.  It was patronized first by the Satavahanas and later by the Ikshvakus. Some of the Buddhist sculptures of Amaravati have GrecoRoman influence that was the direct result of the close trade and diplomatic contacts between South India and the ancient Romans.

(4) Aihole

Aihole is in Bijapur district of Karnataka. It was the first capital of western Chalukyas which was later moved to Badami. It is known for Chalukyan architecture, with many stone temples dating from 5th century CE. It lies to the east of Pattadakal, while Badami is to the west of both.
Aihole has been described as one of the cradles of temple architecture and contains the earliest structural temples known in India. The Chalukyan architectural styles inherited largely from their neighbors to the north and south of their kingdom.
Important temples at Aihole: Durga temple, Meguti temple, Jain temple, Rock-cut Jain Basadi, Huchimalli (gudi) temple.
Ravana Phadi cave is one of the oldest rocks cut temples in Aihole. Jain cave temple is on the banks of Malaprabha River. A Buddhist Chaitya Cave temple is found which is partly rockcut structure.
Galaganatha group temples are one of nearly thirty temples on the bank of the Malaprabha River. The main shrine of the Galaganatha temple is enshrining Shiva.
A group of three temples is referred to as the Kontigudi group of temples.  One of these is the Lad Khan temple which is the oldest temple at Aihole and has Shiva Lingam.
Aihole inscription:
The Aihole Prasasti in Meguti Temple at Aihole was composed by Ravikirti, the court poet of Pulakesin II in 634 A.D. It is written in Sanskrit language and old Karnataka script and gives a dtailed account of Pulakesin II’s exploit against his neighbouring kingdoms like the Pallavas. It describes the victory of Pulakesin II against King Harshavardhana.

(5) Brahmagiri

Brahmagiri is an archaeological site located in the Chitradurga district of Karnataka. It is known for the large number of megalithic monuments.
Neoliths found in this region were evidence of the occupation of this region by farming-herding communities in the pre-megalithic period.
Excavation has revealed medieval stone temples, pottery, terracota beads and figurines, semiprecious stones and megalithic structures.
Rock edicts of Emperor Ashoka here, denoted the southernmost extent of the Mauryan Empire.

(6) Daulatabad (Deogiri)

It is situated in the Aurangabad district of Maharashtra. Bhillama V who was one of the powerful Yadava rulers founded the city of Deogiri and shifted his capital here. Deogiri was a great centre of trade and commerce.
During the rule of Rama Chandra Deva, Ala-ud-din Khilji invaded and captured Deogiri in A.D. 1296.  However, Ramachandradeva was allowed to rule as a vassal. Later, Malik Kafur led two campaigns against Deogiri. Later the fort was annexed to the Delhi Sultanate.
Muhammad-bin-Tughluq renamed Deogiri as Daulatabad and and shifted the capital from Delhi in A.D. 1328 for two years, before it was abandoned later.
Fort of Daulatabad was impregnable hill fortress. Other buildings are Char Minar and Chini Mahal.

(7) Fatehpur Sikri

It is in Agra district of Uttar Pradesh. This city was built by Mughal Emperor Akbar which took about 11 years (1569-80). It was built on the outskirts of Akbarabad (name of Agra). Here Akbar built Diwan-i-Khas, Diwan-i-Aam, Panch Mahal, Mariam Palace, Jodha Bai Palace etc.
There is also the Jami Masjid with Buland Darwaza (built after conquering Gujarat) and tomb of Shaikh Salim Chisti. During Akbar’s time, it became a city of poets and musicians, historians, artists, craftmen. Ibadat Khana debate of theologians used to happen here during Akbar time where foundation of a new syncretistic faith, Din-e-Ilahi was laid by Akbar.
The imperial complex of Fatehpur Sikri was abandoned in 1585, shortly after its completion, due to the exhaustion of the small, spring fed lake that supplied the city with water.

(8) Golkonda

It is situated in Andhra Pradesh near Hyderabad and was capital of Golconda Sultanate (1518–1687) founded by Qutab Shah of Qutab Shahi dynasty (rose to the prominence after the collapse of Bahmani Sultanate). It remained the capital of the Qutb Shahi dynasty until 1590. It was annexed by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb 1687 AD.
The Golkonda Fort was constructed by the king of Kakatiya dynasty of Warangal. The fort fell into ruin after it fell to Aurangazeb in 1687 AD.
Many famed diamonds are believed to have been excavated from the mines of Golkonda including Koh-i-noor Diamond. Golkonda is also faous for the Mughal paintings.

(9) Gangaikondacholapuram

The city was founded by Rajendra Chola, the son and successor of Rajaraja Chola as the capital of the Cholas to commemorate his victory over the Pala Dynasty. The name means the town of the Chola who led great victorious march to river Ganges on Northern India. The city seems to have had two fortifications, one inner and the other outer.
Rajendra Chola established the Gangaikondaan temple after his great victorious march to river Ganges on Northern India. The great temple of Siva at this place is next only to the Brihadisvara temple at Thanjavur in its monumental nature and surpasses it in sculptural quality. The architecture is in Dravida Style and is a portrayal of complex carvings on the hard granite stones.
The creativity of sculptors is reflected in the figures of dancing Nataraja and Ardhanareshwara (the man-woman manifestation of Lord Shiva).

(10) Hampi

Hampi is situated near Mysore in Karnataka. It is located within the ruins of the city of Vijayanagara, the former capital of the Vijayanagara Empire.
It houses the Virupaksha Temple,  as  well  as  several  other  monuments  belonging  to  the  old  city. The  ruins  are  a  UNESCO  World  Heritage  Site,  listed  as  the  Group  of  Monuments at Hampi.
Hampi formed one of the core areas of the capital of the Vijayanagara Empire from 1343 to 1565, when it was finally laid siege to by the Deccan Muslim confederacy. Hampi had strategic location, bounded by the Tungabhadra River on one side and surrounded by defensible hills on the other three sides.
The extant monuments of Hampi can be divided into Religious, Civil & Military buildings. Most of monuments are of Vijaynagara period.
Religious buildings:
Hampi has various notable Hindu temples. Among the most notable are:
Hazara Rama Temple Complex: It was built by ing Krishnadev Raya. This ruined temple complex is well known for elaborate frescoes from the Hindu religion. It has carvings and inscriptions depicting the story of Ramayana.
Vittala Temple Complex. The temple contains the images of foreigners like Persians selling horses.
Virupaksha Temple: It predates the founding of the Vijayanagara Empire. It is mainly Shiva temple.
Important civil architecture is Elephant Stable used to house the eleven royal elephants in King Krishnadeva Raya’s army. The neighbouring building housed the elephant riders of the king.

(11) Jaunpur

Jaunpur is situatd near Varanasi across the river Gomati in UP. It  was  founded  in 14th century by  the  Sultan of Delhi Firuz Shah Tughlaq and named in memory of his cousin, Muhammad bin Tughluq, whose  given name was Jauna Khan.
When the Sultanate was in disarray, in 1393 Malik Sarwar declared independence. He and his adopted son Mubarak Shah founded what came to be known as the Sharqi dynasty (dynasty of the East). During the Sharqi period the Jaunpur Sultanate was a strong military power in Northern India, and on several occasions threatened the Delhi Sultanate.
The Jaunpur Sultanate attained its greatest height under the Shams-ud-din Ibrahim Shah (ruled 1402-1440). To the east, his kingdom extended to Bihar, and to the west, to Kanauj.
Under Sikandar Lodi, the Delhi Sultante was able to reconquer Jaunpur in 1493, bringing that sultanate to an end.
The Jaunpur Sultanate was a major center of Urdu and Sufi knowledge and culture.
Notable Sharqi monuments are Atala Masjid, Jama Masjid and the Lal Darwaza Masjid. The Jaunpur mosques display a unique architectural style, combining traditional Hindu and Muslim motifs with purely original elements. The Jaunpur Qila, a fortress from the Tughlaq era, remains in ruined form.

(12) Kapilavastu

It is located in Nepal along the Indian border. It is about 25 kilometres northwest of Lumbini, a UNESCO World Heritage Site that is believed to be the birthplace of Gautama Buddha. The famous Rumindei inscription of Ashoka marks the site of the birth of Buddha at Lumbini.
In ancient times Kapilavastu was the capital city of the Shakya kingdom. King Suddhodana and Queen Mayadevi lived at Kapilavastu gave birth to Siddartha who became Gautama Buddha.
Chinese pilgrims Faxian and Xuanzang made pilgrimages to the site in 5th and 7th century respectively.
Kapilvastu was also important trade centre in ancient time.

(13) Kanauj (or Kanyakubja)

Kanyakubja is modern Kannauj located on the banks of the river Ganga in Uttar Pradesh. It was the capital of the Maukharis and Harshavardhana.
After the death of Harshavardhana in 7th century, Kannuaj remained a focal point for the struggle between the Palas, the Pratiharas and the Rashtrakutas. The Tripartite struggle to capture Kannauj continued between the 8th and 10th centuries.
Till the arrival of the Muslims, Kannauj was the most prosperous and the largest cultural centre in Northern India. At the time of the invasion of Muhammad Ghaznavi, Kannauj was being ruled by Rajapala of Gurjara Pratihara dynasty. When Md. Ghori invaded India, it was being ruled by Raja Jai Chand who had enmity with Chauhan ruler Prithviraj. It was finally captured by Delhi Sultanate.
In the battle of Kannauj, Sher shah had inflicted a defeat on Humayun.

(14) Kanchipuram

Kanchipuram is in Tamil Nadu. Kanchipuram had served as an Early Chola capital. Later it became the capital of the Pallava Kingdom between the 4th and 9th centuries and acquired fame as a centre of art and architecture and learning under their rule. It has a number of educational institutions called Ghatikas. It was also a centre of the religious and literary activity of the Vaishnavites and Saivites Bhakti saints, Alvars and Nayanars, who were patronized by the Pallava rulers.
The city’s historical monuments include the Kailasanathar Temple (built by Pallava King Rajasimha in 8th century) and the Vaikuntha Perumal Temple.
The archaeological excavations suggest that Kanchi was an important commercial centre during the Satavahana period. It is attested by the discovery of 15 Satavahana coins, pieces of Rouletted ware associated with the Romans, terracotta coin-mould, copper and iron objects etc.
The city was a religious centre education for Jainism and Buddhism between the 1st and 5th centuries.
The city is well known for its hand woven silk sarees.

(15) Lothal

Lothal is situated in Ahmedabad district of Gujarat on the bank of river Bhogava. It is one of the most prominent sites of the ancient Indus valley civilization dating from 2400 BCE.
Before the arrival of Harappan people (2400 BCE), Lothal was a small village.  An indigenous micaceous Red Ware culture also existed, which is believed to be pre-Harappan.The indigenous people maintained a prosperous economy, attested by the discovery of copper objects, beads and semi-precious stones. Ceramic wares were of fine clay and smooth.  A  new  technique  of  firing  pottery  under  partly oxidising  and  reducing  conditions  was  improved  by  them—designated black-and-red  ware,  to  the  micaceous  Red  Ware.
Harappans were attracted to Lothal for its sheltered harbour, rich cotton and rice-growing environment and bead-making industry.
The Lothal Harappan city was divided into a citadel and a lower town. The constructions were made of fire dried bricks, lime and sand mortar. The remains of the city give evidence to a sophisticated drainage system.
Important findings in Lothal Harappan site are: a Dockyard, Persian Gulf Seals, Shell ornaments maker’s shop, Bead maker’s shop, Metal worker’s shop, Fire altars, terracotta figurine of house, a warehouse, a merchant house, impression of cloth on some of the sealing, twelve bathrooms in the citadel area. An ivory scale from Lothal has the smallest-known decimal divisions in Indus civilisation.
Lothal’s dock—probably the  world’s  earliest known, connected the city to the course of the river on the trade route between Harappan cities in Sindh and the peninsula of Saurashtra.
Lothal was a thriving trade centre in ancient times, with its trade of beads, gems and valuable ornaments reaching the far corners of West Asia.
A coastal trade route had existed linking sites such as Lothal and Dholavira to Sutkagan Dor on the Makran coast.
Later Harappan culture:
The site continued to be inhabited, albeit by a much smaller population devoid of urban influences. While the trade and resources of the city were almost entirely gone, the people retained several Harappan ways in writing, pottery and utensils.

(16) Paithan (or Pratishthana)

It is located in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra on Godavari River. It was the capital of the Satavahanas that ruled from 2nd century BC to 2nd century AD.  It is mentioned in the famous 1st century AD Greek book, Periplus of Erythrian Sea and in Ashokan Rock Edict.
Paithan was important emporium of trade and commerce with links connecting to other parts of India the world.
Paithan was also the home of the great Maharashtrian saint Eknath.
The town is famous today for its sarees — the Paithani silk saris.

(17) Panipat

Panipat is in Haryana. The First Battle of Panipat was fought on 21 April 1526 between Ibrahim Lodhi, the Afghan Sultan of Delhi, and Babur, who later established Mughal rule in Northern Indian subcontinent.
The Second Battle of Panipat was fought on 5 November 1556 between the forces of Akbar and Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, also known as Hemu, a King of North India.
The Third Battle of Panipat was fought in 1761 between the Maratha Empire and the Afghan invaders, Ahmad Shah Abdali.
Panipat is also famous for Kabuli Bagh Mosque built by Babur.

(18) Ranthambhor

Ranthambore is situated in the old Jaipur state. Fort of Ranthambhor is one of the six forts included in the World Heritage Site inscription Hill Forts of Rajasthan.
After the defeat of the Chauhan king Prithviraj Chauhan by Muhammad of Ghori in 1192, Ranthambore, led by Govinda Raja, son of Pritviraj, became the center of Chauhan resistance to the expanding Sultanate of Delhi. Govinda Raja was succeeded by his son Balhana.The Delhi Sultan Iltutmish captured Ranthambore in  1226,  but  the  Chauhans  recaptured  it  after  his  death  in  1236.
Ranthambhor was a Rajput stronghold before it was captured by Qutubuddin Aibak in 1192 AD. Iltutmish again seized the fort in 1226 AD. Later it became independent and Mughal Emperoro Akbar reconquered it.
The fort is known for the glory and valor of Hammir dev of the Chauhan dynasty. Alauddin Khilji had attacked and conqured it killing Hammir Deo in 1301.
The  fortress  was  captured  by  the  kingdom  of  Mewar  under  Rana  Hamir  Singh (1326–1364) and Rana Kumbha (1433–1468). The Mughal Emperor Akbar captured the fortress in 1559.The fortress passed to the Kachwaha Maharajas of Jaipur in the 17th century.

(19) Rupar (or Ropar)

It lies on the left bank of the river Sutlej in Rupnagar district of Punjab. It is a site belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization. It lays on chief trade route to the north-west. The discovery of large number of coins  (from punch marked coins of Gupta to various iron and copper objects) indicates that Ropar was centre  of craft and commerce upto Gupta period.
The remains of a smith’s workshop with a furnace and a heap of agate beads belonging to the NBPW period (6th century BCE) have been found.

(20) Samugarh

Samugarh was renamed as Fatehabad in Agra district.
It is famous for the battle of Samugarh (May 29, 1658) which was a decisive battle in the struggle for the throne during the Mughal war of succession between the sons of the Mughal Emperor Shah  Jahan after the emperor’s serious illness in September 1657. The battle of Samugarh was fought  between his sons Dara Shikoh (the eldest son and heir apparent) and his two younger brothers Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh  (third  and  fourth  sons  of  the  Mughal  Emperor  Shah  Jahan)  resulting  in defeat of Dara Shikoh.

(21) Salsette

Mumbai in Maharashtra lie on Salsette Island. Salsette  was  ruled  by  a  succession  of  Hindu  kingdoms,  the  last  of  which  were  the Silharas. In 1343, the islands were annexed by the Muslim Sultanate of Gujarat. In 1534, the Portuguese took the islands from Sultan Bahadur Shah of Gujarat.
In1739 the island was captured by the Marathas. The British occupied Salsette in 1774, which was formally ceded to the East India Company under the Treaty of Salbai, 1782.

(22) Tamralipti

It is identified with the modern Tamluk near the mouth of the Ganges in Midnapur district of West Bengal.
It was an important seaport and the emporium of trade in eastern India. It was connected to Taxila, rajagriha, Shwavasti, Pataliputra, Varanasi, Kaushambi, Champa by land on one hand and with south-east Asia by sea on the other.
Tamralipti was the exit point of the Mauryan trade route for the south and south-east.
Here, antiquities of Chalcolithic period have been found. It became important during NBPW phase. Discovery of Rouletted ware and red polished ware of Roman type indicates the trade contact with Roman world during first and second century AD.
Urban character is proved by discovery of teracotta figurines, coins, neads or semiprecious stines etc.

(23) Takshashila (or Taxila)

Taxila is situated in Rawalpindi district in Pakistan. Ancient Taxila was situated at the pivotal junction of 3 major trade routes: first from West Asia, the second from northern India and the third from Cntral Asia. When ancient trade routes connecting these regions ceased to be important, the city sank into insignificance.
It developed as an important political, commercial and cultural centre during 500 BC – 500 AD.
Taxila was an important centre of artisanal production. This is attested by discovery of tools used by carpenters and metal workers.
Taxila was an important centre of education. Taxila University is considered to be amongst the earliest universities in the world. Others do not consider it a university in the modern sense, in that the teachers living there may not have had official membership of particular colleges, and there did not seem to have existed purpose-built lecture halls and residential quarters in Taxila, in contrast to the later Nalanda University in eastern India.
Charaka, Chanakya, Jivaka, Panini etc are related to Taxila University.
In 326 BCE, Alexander the Great received submission of ruler of Taxila, Ambhi. Greek historians accompanying Alexander described Taxila as wealthy, prosperous, and well governed. Taxila is mentioned as Taxiala in Ptolemy’s Geography.
During 321–317  BCE  – Chandragupta  Maurya,  founder  of  the  Mauryan  empire,  makes himself  master  of  northern  and  north-western  India,  including  Taxila. Chandragupta Maurya’s advisor Kautilya (also known as Chanakya) was a teacher at Takshasila. Under Chandragupta, Taxila became a provincial capital of Mauryas.
During the reign of Chandragupta’s grandson Ashoka, Taksasila became a great Buddhist centre of learning. Ashoka encouraged trade by building roads, most notably a highway linking his capital Pataliputra with Taxila.
In 2nd century BCE, after Maurya rule, Taxila was annexed by the Indo-Greek kingdom of Bactria.  Indo-Greeks  build  new  capital,  Sirkap,  on  the opposite  bank  of  the  river  from  Taksasila.
In 20 BCE, Gondophares, founder of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom, conquers Taksasila and makes it his capital.
Then it came under Kushanas.
Buddhist Jataka literature mentions it as the capital of the kingdom of Gandhara and as a great centre of learning. The Chinese pilgrims Fa Hian (5th century) and Hieun Tsang (7th century) visited Taxila.
The city appears to have already overrun by the Huns during Huen Tsang and been in ruins by his time. Taxila, as the capital of Gandhara satrapy, was under Achaemenian Rule (Under Darius) for more than a century.

(24) Talikota

It is situated near Mysore in Karnataka acoss the river Krishna. It is famous for the Battle of Talikota (26 January 1565), which was a watershed battle fought between the Vijayanagara Empire and the Confederacy of the Deccan sultanates, resulted in a rout of Vijayanagara, and ended the great Vijayanagara Empire in South India.

(25) Somnath

It is situated in the Saurashtra region of Gujarat coast and has several names like Deo Pattan, Prabhas Pattan, Verwal Pattan or Pattan Somnath. In 8th century, it was under Chavada Rajputs. Later on it came under several rulers including Marathas and the Nawab of Junagarh.
Somnath temple is considered as one of the 12 Jyotirlinga shrines of Shiva. It is an important pilgrimage and tourist spot.
Somnath temple was looted by several times by rulers like Muhammad Ghazni, Muhammad Ghori, Alauddin Khilji, Muzaffar shah of Gujarat Sultanate, Mahmud Begada and Aurangzeb.  Also, it was rebuilt several times by rulers like Paramara King Bhoja of Mawa, Solanki King Bhimdev of Anhilwara, Kumarpala, Mahipala Deva (a Chudasama king of Saurashtra), Peshwa of Pune, Bhonsle of Kolhapur Queen Ahilyabai Holkar of Indore etc.

(26) Kalinjar

Kalinjar is a fortress-city in the Bundelkhand region located in Banda District of Uttar Pradesh, near the temple-city of Khajuraho. The fortress is strategically located on an isolated rocky hill at the end the Vindhya Range. The fortress contains several temples.
It served several of Bundelkhand’s ruling dynasties, including the Chandela dynasty of Rajputs in the 10th century, and the Solankis of Rewa. The Chandela Rajputs after their defeat at the hands of Prithviraj in 1182 moved their capital from Mahoba to Kalinjar.
It was here that Sher Shah Suri fought his last battle. Sher Shah, although captured the fort, was killed by a bomb splinter.
In 1812 AD, it came under the possession of the English.

(27) Mandu

Mandu was a famous hill fort in the old Dhar state of central India. When Timur captured Delhi in 1401, the Afghan Dilawar Khan, governor of Malwa, set up his own kingdom and Ghuri dynasty was established and the golden age of Mandu began. Under his son Hoshang Shah, It became the capital of Malwa. Several monuments like Hindola Mahal were built during his reign. Hoshang Shah’s Tomb made in marble is refined example of Afghan architecture. Jami Masjid was also built.
Muhammad Khalji established the Khilji dynasty. He built the Jahaz Mahal for his Harem. In 1526, Mahmud who was the 6th Khalji ruler made no resistance against the invading Bahadur Shah of Gujarat who conquered Mandu in 1531. I 1534, Mandu came under Humayun’s rule who relaxed here for a brief period. Later he lost it to Khalji rulers.
Baz Bahadur was famour ruler due to his love for Rani Rupamati and his singing art. He was defeated by Akbar and joined his court. Mandu has architectures like Rani Rupmati Pavilion and Baz Bahadur’s Palace.
In 1625, Khurram in rebellion against his father Shahjahan took refuge in Mandu.
The fort of this place contains many mosques, palaces, tombs and dwelling places which are fine specimens of Afghan architecture.

(28) Warangal

Warangal is locted in Telangana. It was the capital of the Kakatiya dynasty from the 12th to the 14th centuries. The Kakatiyas left many monuments, including an impressive fortress, four massive stone gateways, the Swayambhu temple dedicated to Shiva, and the Ramappa temple situated near Ramappa Lake. The cultural and administrative distinction of the Kakatiyas was mentioned by the famous traveller Marco Polo.
Later, it cae under Delhi Sultanate and then the Nayakas captured Warangal from Delhi sultanate and ruled for fifty years. Later it became the part of Mughal Empire when Aurangzeb conquered Golconda in 1687.

(29) Murshidabad

It is situated in West Bengal. In 1704, Murshid Quli Khan, the Diwan of Bengal under Aurangzeb transferred the capital of Bengal from Dacca, and renamed the city Murshidabad after his own name.  In 1716, he attained the title of Nawab of the Subah (province) of Bengal, and Murshidabad became his capital.
In 1742, Marathas under the Bhonsle of Berar plundered Murshidabad and got booty.

(30) Surat

In 1513, the Portuguese traveller Duarte Barbosa described Surat as an important seaport, frequented by many ships from Malabar and various parts of the world. It was a prosperous city with a lot of trading activities. In 1512 and 1530, Surat was ravaged by the Portuguese.
When the harbour in Cambay began to silt up toward the end of fifteenth century, Surat eclipsed Cambay as the major port of western India. At the end of the 16th century, the Portuguese were undisputed masters of the Surat sea trade. On the banks of the Tapti River, there is still a picturesque fortress that was built in 1540.
In 1612, the English East India Company established the first factory here. The Dutch also established their factory.
During Aurangzeb rule, Surat was plundered tqice by Maratha King Shivaji.
The prosperity of Surat received a blow when Bombay was ceded to the English as part of the dowry for Portuguese Princess Catherine of Braganza’s wedding to Charles II of England in 1662. Shortly afterwards, in 1668, the East India Company established a factory in Bombay and Surat began its decline.

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