Answers of DPPH- 10 February
1. Mughal Emperor during the Battle of Plassey was:
(a) Shah Alam II
(c) Alamgir II
(d) None of these
2. Consider the following statements:
i. First English factory in Bengal was established at Hugali under the permission of Sultan Shuja.
ii. Aurangzeb had granted farman to English which gave them right to duty-free trade in Bengal in return for an annual fixed payment.
Choose the correct option:
(a) Only i is correct
(b) Only ii is correct.
(c) Both i and ii are correct.
(d) None is correct
3. Which one of the following statements is not correct?
(a) Murshid Quli Khan finished the Izardari system in Bengal.
(b) He granted agricultural loan (taccavi) to poor cultivators.
(c) He nullified the duty free farman granted to Briish by Mughal Emperor and forced th British to pay custom duties.
(d) He shifted the capital city of Bengal from Dacca to Murshidabad.
4. Match the following:
List I List II
A. Robert Clive i. Battle of Buxar
B. Vasistart ii. Battle of Plassey
C. Warren Hastings iii. Abolished Dual Government.
D. Dupleix iv. Governor of Chandernagore
A B C D
(a) ii i iii iv
(b) ii iii iv ii
(c) i ii iii iv
(d) iv ii iii i
5. Who was the first to break the trade monopoly of Portuguese in India?
6. Consider the following statements regarding the battle of Buxar:
i. The battle brought out the political weaknesses and military shortcomings of the Indians and the hollowness of the Mughal Empire.
ii. It can be said as more important than Battle of Plassey as Battle of Plassey was not won by military might but deceit.
iii. It can be said as more important than Battle of Plassey as the Battle of Plassey saw defeat of the Nawab of bengal, while the Battle of Buxar also saw defeat of Mughal Emperor and powerful Oudh.
iv. The verdict of Plassey was confirmed by the English victory at Buxar.
Correct statements are:
(a) i, ii and iii
(b) ii, iii and iv
(c) i and iii
(d) i, ii, iii and iv
7. Choose the incorrect statement:
(a) The English occupation of Bengal in 1757 enabled them to use the inexhaustible source of wealth and material resources of Bengal for fighting and defeating the French.
(b) English held naval supremacy and the control of the Sea route from helped in defeating French
(c) French faced great financial difficulties as their resources from the Deccan and Carnatic were quite inadequate.
(d) French were confined only to Pondicherry after the Carnatic Wars.
8. Consider the following statements:
i. The Portuguese started an era of unarmed open sea- trade in the Indian waters.
ii. The Portuguese effort to push out the Muslims from the trade in oriental goods, and to establish a Portuguese monopoly over the trade in West Asia completely succeeded.
iii. The Portuguese fully controlled trade in the Indian Ocean waters.
iv. Portuguese impact on the political system in India was small as they were too few in numbers to try to capture and keep hold of any large territories on the mainland in India.
The correct statement/s is/are:
(a) i and iv
(b) ii and iv
(c) Only iii
(d) Only iv
9. The British East India Company used the term ‘investments in India’ for—
(a) Their imports of bullion to purchase Indian goods
(b) The investment by British Capitalists in India.
(c) The profits made from duty free inland trade and the surplus from Diwani revenue
(d) The borrowed money from Indian money lenders for purchases in India
10. Choose the correct statement:
(a) The Danes founded a settlement in Tranquebar.
(b) The Danes could not get a foot hold in India and sold their settlements to French.
(c) The Portuguese were the first Europeans to reach India via Red Sea route.
(d) As a result of the Dutch contact, many products of the Latin American world—Maize, potato, Tobacco,chilli entered the Indian rural economy.
1. What do you mean by Enlightened despots in Europe? Critically examine their liberal policies.
In the later years of the Enlightenment, absolute monarchs in several European countries adopted some of the ideas of Enlightenment political philosophers and inspired by Enlightenment ideas. They were called Enlightened despots.
Enlightened monarchs especially embraced its emphasis upon rationality. In many cases they tended to allow religious toleration, freedom of speech and the press, and the right to hold private property. Most fostered the arts, sciences, and education.
Examples of Enlightened despots and their liberal policies
(1) Catherine the Great
In Russia, empress Catherine the Great decried torture while greatly improving education, health care, and women’s rights, as well as clarifying the rights of the nobility. She also insisted that the Russian Orthodox Church become more tolerant of outsiders.
(2) Maria-Theresa and Joseph II
In Austria, monarchs Maria-Theresa and Joseph II worked to end mistreatment of peasants by abolishing serfdom and also promoted individual rights, education, and religious tolerance.
(3) Frederick the Great
An admirer of Voltaire, Frederick the Great, the king of Prussia, supported the arts and education, reformed the justice system, improved agriculture, and created a written legal code.
Limitations of the liberal policies of Enlightened despots
However, although some changes and reforms were implemented, most of these rulers did not fundamentally change absolutist rule. In many cases, their poilicies were not politically liberal because:
(1) Catherine the Great continued to imprison many of her opponents and maintained censorship and serfdom.
(2) Joseph was over-enthusiastic, announcing so many reforms that had so little support, that and his regime became a comedy of errors and revolts broke out and all his programs were reversed.
(3) Although reforms strengthened and streamlined the Prussian state, the tax burden continued to fall on peasants and commoners.
(4) There was difference between the “enlightenment” of the ruler personally, versus that of his or her regime. For example, Frederick the Great was tutored in the ideas of the French Enlightenment in his youth, and maintained those ideas in his private life as an adult, but in many ways was unable or unwilling to effect enlightened reforms in practice.
(5) Others rulers like the Marquis of Pombal, prime minister of Portugal, used the enlightenment not only to achieve reforms but also to enhance autocracy, crush opposition, suppress criticism, further colonial economic exploitation, and consolidate personal control and profit.
(Note: Skip few points or examples for words limit)
2. What were the fundamental differences between French East India Company and British East India Company? How does it partly explain the failure of the French in India?
Differences in French East India Company and English East India Company
(1) French Company was like a department of the State as the major share of the French East India Company was held by French monarch. Naturally, the Company did not enjoy autonomy.
The English East India Company was independent commercial corporation with sound finance and less interference from the British Government. It was a joint-stock company in whose fortune or misfortune a large section of the English nation was directly interested unlike French Company where major share was held by the monarch.
(2) The English Company had complete approval and confidence of their Home government. The British Government interfered in the affairs of the Company only when it was necessary to secure the interest of its shareholders.
The French East India company had to repeatedly look up to the Home government for all kinds of support including financial and military assistance.
How it partly explains failure of French in India?
(1) Neglect by French Government
The French Company was guided more by the whims of the French ruler than by the exigency of the situation of India.
(2) Decisions were based on politics and not commerce
Since the French government decided everything, decisions were taken in view of politics and not commerce. This led to dwindling commercial profit forcing it to borrow or selling trading rights or begging the French government for grant.
While the English East India Company was an asset to the British Government, for the Government even received loans from it, the French East India Company was a liability to the home government.
(3) Mistakes by French officers and financial problems
Officers of the French Company focused more on territorial expansion instead of commerce. When their home government was not in position to subsidise them, they should have concentrated on consolidated their finances before entering into expensive political ventures. This they did not do. The Governor of Pondicherry, who controlled the main French treasury was unable to finance operation. The French troops suffered from the lack of provisions and there was no money to pay the soldiers and workmen.
The French Government at home or the Company, was not in a position to come out with the necessary financial help even at a time when Dupleix had succeeded in acquiring territories in India. Dupleix spent his own fortunes to meet financial needs of the French Government in India, but this was too small in comparison to the task he had undertaken. Poverty dogged the French in India even when they were at the zenith of their power in India.
But these factors were only partially responsible for the failure of French as several other factors were also responsible for it, such as: Naval superiority of English, capture of Bengal by English, strategic blunders by French officers, lack of appreciation by French government for the excellent service by its officers etc.
(Note: Skip few points for words limit)
For previous DPPH, Click Here