History Optional 2020 Main Paper II [Section A-Modern India]


Q.1 Critically examine the following statements in about 150 words each: 10×5=50

(a) “Maharaja Ranjit Singh died in 1839. His death was the signal for an outburst of anarchy all over the Punjab.” [10 Marks]

(b) “In the initial stages, when Indian nationalism was immature, just sprouting, it found expression in many liberal religio-reform movements.” [10 Marks]

(c) “In the early twentieth century, there came into existence a number of women’s organisations, which operated more actively in the public arena and focused more directly on women’s political and legal rights.” [10 Marks]

(d) “The Trade Union Movement in India not only supported the call for national struggle at critical junctures, but also impacted its course and character in several ways.” [10 Marks]

(e) “Based on his discussion with Indian leaders, as well as his own perception, Lord Mountbatten soon came to the conclusion that partition was the only practicable and feasible solution.” [10 Marks]

Q.2 (a) “It was Dupleix who had first showed the way the way of intervening in disputes of the Indian rulers and thereby acquiring political control over vast territories- a technique which was later perfected by the English East India Company.” Elaborate. [20 Marks]

(b) For long, the Revolt of 1857, has been mistaken to be a mere mutiny of the Indian sepoys in the Bengal army. However, its causes need to be searched for not only in the dissatisfaction of the army, but in a long drawn process of fundamental social and economic change that upset the peasant communities. Discuss. [20 Marks]

(c) Do you feel that the Santhal Hool (rebellion) 1855-56, was the most effective tribal movement in pre-1857 India? [10 Marks]

Q.3 (a) In its political behaviour the Indian National Congress in its early career was never a radical organisation, besides the founders of the Congress involved A.O. Hume in their project. Do these facts verify that the Congress was founded as a ‘Safety valve’? Explain. [20 Marks]

(b) Do you agree with the fact that the virtual failure of the Non-Cooperation Movement and the gloom that descended on the nationalistic scene, created conditions for the revolutionary activities? Discuss. [20 Marks]

(c) Planning was seen as a powerful instrument that could be used to remove regional inequality. Examine. [10 Marks]

Q.4 (a) “In the divided and contestable space of Indian politics, Gandhiji could claim for himself a centrist position because he alienated neither and tactically combined the goal of the moderates with the means of the extremists.” Discuss. [20 Marks]

(b) “After Indian Independence India-China relations started on a high note, but during the course of the coming years India had to face a bitter experience due to the Chinese aggression.” Elaborate. [20 Marks]

(c) “The Reorganisation of the states on the basis of language was major aspects of national consolidation and integration.” Comment. [10 Marks]

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