History Optional Mains Paper II: 2022 [Section A- Modern India]


Q.1 Critically examine the following statements in about 150 words each : 10×5=50

(a) ‘The Battle of Plassey (1757) was a skirmish while the Battle of Buxar (1764) was a real war’. [10 Marks]

(b) ‘The Treaty of Amritsar (1809) was significant for its immediate as well as potential effects’. [10 Marks]

(c) ‘Famines were not just because of foodgrain scarcity, but were a direct result of colonial economic policies’. [10 Marks]

(d) ‘Penetration of outsiders- called dikus by the Santhals- completely destroyed their familiar world, and forced them into action to take possession of their lost territory’. [10 Marks]

(e) ‘Within a limited scope the Indian Scientists could pursue original scientific research in colonial India’. [10 Marks]


(a) Explain how the Permanent Settlement initiated a rule of property in Bengal and what were its consequences? [20 Marks]

(b) Was the Western education a harbinger of cultural awakening or an instrument of colonial hegemony ? Discuss. [20 Marks]

(c) Can you explain how, after acquiring Diwani, the government of the East India Company functioned like ‘an Indian ruler’ ? [10 Marks]


(a) Do you think that the Indian National Movement was a ‘multi class movement’ which represented the anti-imperialist interests of all classes and strata ? Give reasons in support of your answer. [20 Marks]

(b) The British rule had differential impact on the Indian society. Describe in what ways the Indians responded to the Revolt of 1857. [20 Marks]

(c) Analyse how the revolutionaries taught people self confidence and widened the social base of the freedom movement. [10 Marks]


(a) Discuss the policies and programmes of the early nationalists (moderates). To what extent they were able to fulfil the aspirations of the people. [20 Marks]

(b) In the light of contentions over the McMohon Line, analyse the India-China relations in the 1950s and 1960s. [20 Marks]

(c) How did the popular movements help us to understand the nature of environmental crisis in post-colonial India ? [10 Marks]

Note: All Questions are from our study materials and PYQ solutions. 

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